Tuesday, August 25, 2020

The Causes and Consequences of a Currency Crisis Essay

The Causes and Consequences of a Currency Crisis - Essay Example This makes expansion and a current record shortage, which may lead financial specialists to question the conversion scale peg. Theorists in the long run mount an assault - that is, they request outside stores in return for the residential money. To shield the peg, the fiscal specialists auction outside trade saves. At the point when the stores tumble in a specific way, the legislature is confronted with a decision: should it break its outside guarantee (to keep the swapping scale fixed) or keep its inside political constituents glad (by not raising assessments or cutting spending) Governments typically pick inward targets over outer imperatives; that is, there is a money emergency. A model like this functions admirably in assisting with understanding the breakdown of inflationary economies, similar to Russia in 1998. In any case, such models don't help comprehend late emergencies in Asia. Most Asian nations had outstanding money related and financial approaches that were seen as being practical. The subsequent model perspectives money emergencies as movements between various fiscal strategy equilibria; here theoretical assaults can act naturally satisfying even against nations with sound arrangements. In these models, advertise theorists start assaults dependent on their convictions about the readiness of policymakers to oppose pressure on the swapping scale. At the point when markets see that conditions, for example, high joblessness or a frail financial framework, bargain the national bank's readiness to protect the cash peg by raising loan fees, theoretical assaults are bound to succeed. At the point when a nation faces a cash emergency, different nations are influenced for the most part on account of worldwide exchange. Thailand confronted a budgetary emergency which prompted Malaysia and Indonesia's cash circumstance as these nations were Thailand's principle exchange rivals. Thus, exchange is territorial so money emergencies are local. Downturns are related with cash emergencies and Last Name 3 lead to a fall in imports. Exchange streams are disturbed as one nation's imports fall makes another nation's fares decline. When exchange streams are disturbed, significant issues happen as unhindered commerce is a magnificent thing. There are numerous models that endeavor to clarify the marvel of how a monetary emergency is framed. Chang and Velasco (1998) propose a valuable model should comprise of the accompanying highlights, It must not depend on government trouble making to produce the crisisIt must be sufficiently general to oblige a wide assortment of macroeconomic circumstancesIt must be sufficiently explicit to clarify why in a portion of these macroeconomic situations an emergency happens, and in some it does notIt must record for the high watched relationship between's conversion standard crumples and banking crisesIt must reproduce the astounding certainty that the discipline is a lot bigger than the wrongdoing The moving of data in worldwide money related markets can make the majority of the data become caught. Minute changes in data can cause mind boggling conduct by worldwide financial specialists. During a money emergency, governments will in general dispossess outside assets trying to raise reserves. (Chari and Kehoe, 1997). Their model suggests that solitary governments with powerless notorieties are dependent upon unpredictable capital streams. Thailand confronted unimaginable outside (remote) obligations. As its obligations expanded, loan bosses thought about whether it could meet its commitments. Thus, flexibly

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Chotukool Solutions free essay sample

Evaluate the business situation for ChotuKool? What are the basic achievement factors for this item to succeed? ChotuKool falls in to the matter of refrigeration, to comprehend the business better let us comprehend the general refrigeration business But before that lets takes a gander at the purchaser sturdy market, the customer solid market comprises of items from watches to fans. With the assistance of the underneath referenced information we can comprehend the infiltration and reach of a buyer sturdy like cooler in contrast with an item like Television Set, vehicle, bicycle or Grinder. This will help us in having a more profound information on the position of a retrigger in the psyches of the purchaser in contrast with other customer durables. With the examination of the underneath indicated graph we comprehend that coolers have had the option to enter just 46% of the urban market then again it has scarcely scratched the rustic market by simply arriving at a pitiful 8%. We will compose a custom article test on Chotukool Solutions or on the other hand any comparable point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page By and large the vast majority of the shopper strong appeared beneath have a not too bad reach in the provincial markets aside from vehicle and coolers, this causes us comprehend that there is an undiscovered market accessible in the rustic zones for this particular buyer sturdy Ownership of purchaser durables (% of family unit) Refrigerators Pressure cooker Bicycle Wrist watch Ceiling fan Mixer/Grinder Color TV Motorcycle Car 0% 3% 12% 19% 17% 19% 34% 48% 56% 54% 8% 38% 53% 69% 76% 88% 89% 46% 80% Urban Rural 20% 40% 60% 80% FY 2008 †09| Rs/cr| ACamp;R industry advertise size| 14,200 (US$ 3. 0 B)| Airconditioning systems| 11,000| Business refrigeration| 2,000| ACamp;R servicing| 1,200| * Approximately 69 percent populace dwells in provincial India, yet just 35% deals is contributed by rustic markets. Notwithstanding, this business commitment is required to increment to 45% in not so distant future. * Rural Consumer durables markets is developing by 30 percent right now, expected to develop by 45 percent in FY12 80 lacs Refrigerators sold a year ago and the market has developed by 12-15% (2010) Commercial Refrigeration Sector †¢ Growth during most recent 5 years: - 10% †¢ Expected development during medium term (3-5 years): 10-12% Taking a gander at these figures we can see that the Domestic Refrigerator advertise in Indiaâ is one of the quickest developing fragments of the purchaser sturdy industry and is seeing noteworthy development by virtue of rising per capita salary and improved social markers. The market is evaluated to be worth INR 97. 69 bnâ in 2010. Over 80% of the number of inhabitants in India doesn't utilize fridges. Fridges have been fabricated in India since 1950s. Till the 1980s, players like Godrej, Kelvinator, Allwyn and Voltas controlled practically 90% of the market. Prior, the white products part was sorted as an extravagance merchandise industry and was dependent upon abusive tax assessment and authorizing. The circumstance changed after progression of the economy in the mid 1990s. The Government expelled all limitations, and now there is no limitation on outside speculation, and licenses are not, at this point required. Post-advancement, various outside organizations entered the market and numerous local players likewise expanded into coolers. BPL and Videocon who previously had a nearness in the customer hardware showcase, utilized their qualities to enter the durables area. In India, fridges have the most noteworthy optimistic estimation of all customer durables, except for TVs. This records for the high development pace of the cooler market which has been developing at a pace of about 15% every year, while the shopper durables industry overall has developed at nearly 8%. The size of the fridge advertise is assessed to be 3. 5-4 million units roughly, esteemed at Rs. 50 bn. The household infiltration pace of fridges is about 9%. The entrance is extensively higher in urban zones, which represent 75% of the interest, with provincial territories comprising the other 25%. The interest is likewise higher in the northern and western pieces of the nation than in the east. An investigation by Assocham in 2011 evaluated the country purchaser durables market to develop at 40% in 2012 because of higher discretionary cashflow among provincial shoppers. The size of the home apparatus advertise in India is pegged at '30,000 crore, with climate control systems, coolers and clothes washers as the biggest classifications, however family peneration levels are in low single-digits. Current Scenario in India, * Refrigerators have the second most noteworthy optimistic estimation of all shopper durables * High development pace of the fridge showcase. Fridges are made in two fundamental plans which are alluded to as Direct Cool (DC) and Frost Free (FF) cooler. Godrej’s share in the refrigeration advertise as appeared beneath is 18 % Critical achievement factors for chotuKool: Let us study the basic achievement factors based on the 4p’s of showcasing Product: Designed explicitly for rustic buyer Cooling Chip Runs on low force and invertors Runs on battery when there’s load shedding Color picked based on purchaser intrigue Use of eccentric cooling innovation.

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Simplify Your Life This Week

Simplify Your Life This Week Stress Management Management Techniques Print Simplify Your Life This Week The first week in August is Simplify Your Life Week By Elizabeth Scott, MS twitter Elizabeth Scott, MS, is a wellness coach specializing in stress management and quality of life, and the author of 8 Keys to Stress Management. Learn about our editorial policy Elizabeth Scott, MS Updated on February 13, 2018 Simplicity in your surroundings makes it easier to keep your mind clear and open. Astronaut Images/ Getty Images More in Stress Management Management Techniques Physical Techniques Relaxation Time Management Effects on Health Situational Stress Job Stress Household Stress Relationship Stress The first week of August is celebrated as Simplify Your Life Week, but really, any seven days in the year can be a great week to focus your personal resources on simplification.  Simplifying is important because of the toll that clutter takes on our minds, and even on our bodies.  When we have to wade through the physical clutter to find what we need, it drains us of time as well as energy.  All that drained energy adds up to additional strain on your resources and, ultimately, additional stress. Clutter can also be psychologically draining. The mental clutter of planning our next move when were not sure what our resources are, of feeling overwhelmed and needing to think about where our priorities lie from moment to moment (as in should I spend these spare few minutes in meditation or by cleaning up that mess thats been stressing me for days?), and of not knowing when well be able to simply relax are feelings that trigger the bodys stress response.  (This is also known as decision fatigue.) Clutter can also make us less able to make decisions from a proactive state of mind and are more likely to create additional problems for ourselves.   When our fight-or-flight response is triggered, the psychological toll of clutter becomes physical in many ways.   If simplicity can tame some of this stress, isnt it worth taking a little time to proactively cull the clutter of our homes, our schedules, and our minds?  The following information, strategies, and solutions can be implemented this week (and every week, really)  to pare down your busy schedule, cluttered home, or otherwise messy areas of your lifestyle. Try something new this week, and start leaving behind whatever is unnecessary in your life. Shortcuts to Simplify Your Life If youre looking to simplify your life, youre also taking a big step toward a less-stressed life. But the act of simplifying life should be simple, too. The following simplify your life ideas provide you with relatively easy changes you can make that will bring significant results in the future. Streamline Your Lifestyle One of the best ways to simplify your life is to create systems that take care of themselves.  Here are a few ways to streamline your life so that you dont have to constantly think about what needs to be done--its taken care of automatically, at least to an extent.  For example, signing up for an exercise class takes the decision-making and need for self-motivation out of the equation, to a certain extent. Its on your schedule, and maintaining a workout habit becomes easier.     Simplify Your Mind Mindfulness meditation can be done at any time and any place and can help you to rid yourself of mental clutter, at least for a few minutes at a time.  One of the great benefits of mindfulness, however, is the fact that regular practice brings long-term benefits.  Over time, youll feel less stressed, even when youre not practicing mindfulness at the moment!     Life Plan Strategies for Those Who Are Too Busy If youre looking to simplify your life, you might want to address your schedule.  Do you really have time for the things that are most important to you?  If not, there are some targeted ways to cut down on commitments so youll have more freedom to do what you really want to do and to invest in stress management habits as well.  Starting with examining your values, you can find a clear path here to a simpler life. Go Deeper With These Stress Management Resources Stress management and simplicity can be ongoing projects that bring increasing rewards the longer you stay with them.  Dont stop after this week--here are some ways to get more through social media and online resources that can help you simplify and manage stress.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Education Is The Most Influential Parts Of A Child s Life

Education is the one of the most influential parts of a child’s life. A positive education can set a child up for a lifetime of success, adversely, a negative education can set a child up for a lifetime of failures. Knowing how crucial education is, one must ask themselves: Is America doing all that it can to provide a stable education system for every child? Could America be doing more to provide a stable future for each child, and therefore the United States as a whole? Other countries are doing more. Countries in and around Europe and Asia are using a teaching method known as the European style. This style of education is wielding higher quality results for every person involved. To guarantee a successful future for everyone, and the United States as a whole, the American school system needs a revision. For fifty years the United States has seen achievement levels that have stayed the same or went up slightly. If one compares the education system to itself, it seem s that the American school system is in an acceptable place, therefore why change? European countries on the other hand have seen significant advancement over the last fifty years. Poland has gone from only ten percent of high school students graduating to now outperforming the United States. South Korea has raised its standard of living from that equal to Afghanistan, up to a thriving modern economy (Kopp). Thirty-five years ago Finland was one of the worst countries educationally. Today theyShow MoreRelatedHow At Risk Students Make It For College940 Words   |  4 PagesStudents Make It to College, published in the Hispanic Times Magazine, the un-named author is explaining how there are several factors that can have a positive influence on any student, and most importantly, on an at risk students, to make the decision about going to a four-year college. The author is showing us the most important influencing factors such as family and peers. The author also tells us what an at risk-student is. The author is also telling us that within the key factors, there are some underliningRead MoreJohn Locke s Views On Education879 Words   |  4 Pagestheories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. During his services at Shaftesbury, John Locke had been writing. He published all of his most significant works within six years of following his return to England. Locke’s â€Å"Essay Concerning Human Understanding† outlined a theory of human knowledge, identity and selfhood. In his â€Å"Thoughts Concerning Education†, Locke argued for a broadened syllabus and better treatmentRead MoreExternalizing Behaviors Among Children, Play Therapy, And Parental Involvement1214 Words   |  5 Pagesa person might act upon, such as aggression, impulsivity, property or personal destruction, and verbal insults (Meany-Walen, Kottman, Bullis, and Dillman Taylor, 2015). This type of behavior may typically lead to more significant underlying problem(s) in the future. According to Meany-Walen et al., (2015) children that display externalizing behaviors such as aggression, and who do not receive the proper intervention have a higher risk of experiencing problems throughout their lives. AdditionallyRead MoreGender Socialization And Gender Roles1452 Words   |  6 Pages Mirna Abed English 120 Professor Lessor 5/14/2016 Gender role in socialization Gender socialization and gender roles have always existed in society. Gender roles are playing major part in our way of living. As we grow, we learn how to behave and respect from those surrounding us as well as children learn at a young age what it means to be a boy or a girl in our society . there are certain roles placed on boys and girls in accordance with their gender. These gender roles are set onRead MoreLibraries Features Within Childhood And Family Life1465 Words   |  6 Pagesthese skills.’ (Rankin and Brock, 2015, p1). Rankin and Brock cite that ‘Start with the Child’ (CILIP, 2002) recognised that reading is a central part of the child’s development. Reading inspires their imagination, this enables them to grow emotionally, and develop their understanding of the world and where they stand in the local and global community. Libraries can be influential in the early stages of a child’s life because they bring books and children together, they provide a space where childrenRead MoreOprah Winfrey s Influence On Law Enforcement And Schools Across The Country Essay1539 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Real integrity is doing the right thing, knowing that nobody s going to know whether you did it or not.† – Oprah Winfrey. Being born into an abusive family to a teen mother may hold some people from becoming successful, but not Oprah Winfrey. Winfrey uses her rocky past to motivate her to help others, and provide victims of sexual abuse with a safe haven. Winfrey has made an impact on America. The former pageant queen and talk show host helped establish the National Sex Offender Registry whichRead MoreParental Involvement : Young And Helpless Essay979 Words   |  4 Pagesone of the most influential questions a parent can ask their child. This question has haunted millions of children every year hoping to slide one over on their parents in order to get that extra half hour outside before super. It’s a well researched and proven fact that parental involvement has a large impact on a child’s attitude not only towards school, but learning all together. This positive influence simply doesn t stop at a parent attending a quarterly PTA meeting, or being part of school eventsRead MoreWomen in Psychology Essay1565 Words   |  7 PagesWomen in Psychology Paper PSY/310 It feels as though most of the time when thinking about psychology and the great contributions that have been made to it, that most of them have been from men, but along the way there have been several influential women that have contributed to the field of psychology as well. Just like men, there were several women who were pioneers, theorists, and counselors; many of these women have contributed toRead MoreB. Du Bois1593 Words   |  7 Pageshis writings have been very influential, from the time they were released and still to this day. As a speaker, Du Bois was often outspoken and made it a point to be clear where he stood on an issue. Du Bois the teacher was a very intelligent man who was growing into his views, and this time in his life would help shape his future works. The field where these works would come into play the biggest was as an author. Du Bois would go on to write several highly influential books, essays, magazines andRead MoreMoral Values1480 Words   |  6 Pag esimportant, unimportant, right, wrong, good and bad. When we are confronted by choices, options, or moral dilemmas, the decisions we make will indicate what values we hold. Human values give worthiness and respect to life. The foundation of human values are based on  · Dignity of human life  · Respect and consideration for the other  · The importance of integrity and service  · An attitude of non-violence  · The individual and collective quest for peace and happiness. In other words, values are a kind of

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Effects Of Alcohol And Substance Abuse - 2233 Words

Introduction Alcohol and drug consumptions are the biggest issues that the country has. In the 2013 National survey on drug use and health, more than 70% of the people are either full-time or part-time employee. Further, 60% of the drug produced worldwide are consumed by the employee in the USA. The money spent on health care, accidental injuries, productivity loss is very high. The most of the adults with alcohol and substance abuses are the full-time employee. Employees with substance dependency and alcohol addiction increase the medical expenses related to injuries and poor health. The rate of absenteeism is greater than non-substance abuse and non-alcohol employees. The productivity and quality of the work are highly affected. The four major areas of concern in the workplace is attendance, productivity, safety and employee relationship (Elliott Shelley, 2006). Employees consuming alcohol and substance abuses are mostly full-time employee of all levels of management. Alcohol and substance abuse employees cause low productivity, increases health care expenses, work injuries, absenteeism and tardiness, and waste supplies and material due to poor decision-making (Garcia, 1996; Levy Merrick, Volpe-Vartanian et al., 2007). An employee who is addicted to the alcohol and substance abuse does the job to meet the minimum requirement, in order, to sustain their job and to get their paycheck. But from the organizational point of view, the overall productivity is highlyShow MoreRelatedPregnancy: the Effects of Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Fetal Development4521 Words   |  19 PagesPregnancy: The Effects of Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Fetal Development Natalie Fontanella Liberty University Online Abstract This paper examined the effects of alcohol and substance abuse on fetal development in expecting mothers. 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According to Teenrehab.com, nearly 50% of all high school seniors have abused some form of illicit substance and according to National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism nearly 70% of 18 year olds have at the least tried alcohol. Many more adolescents are trying, and getting addicted to, drugs every year. In my opinion this is one of the most critical issues that we have to address as a society. Summary Response:Read MoreAlcohol Abuse and Alcohol Anonimus Essay708 Words   |  3 PagesAlcohol Abuse is part of disorder that affects many people throughout the world. Many are aware of the issues the disorder can bring not just on the victim, but also to the people that surround the person with the psychological problem. There are different areas that can be discussed in regards to alcoholism. According to Coon Mitterer (2013), a substance abuse disorder is when there is an abuse or dependence on a psychoactive drug. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Speech Writing Free Essays

Read the following discussion and consider the views of both the teacher and her students. Write a speech for the school Science Club. In your speech ; describe some of the ways children use technology ; precautions children could take for health and safety ; views of older generations towards technology ; give your own views Base your speech on the ideas found in the discussion and be careful to use your own words. We will write a custom essay sample on Speech Writing or any similar topic only for you Order Now You should write between lo and 2 sides, allowing for the size of your handwriting. Up to ten marks are available for the content of your answer and up to fifteen marks for the quality Of your writing. After a Communication Studies lesson, the teacher, Mrs. Trapdoor, and three students discuss modern technology. Mrs. Trapdoor: That lesson makes me more worried than ever about your physical well being. Surely it’s not a good thing that you use modern technology to escape from reality so often? Brat: So, what do you do to escape from the stresses of your job? No doubt you ‘up the volume’ on your classical music in the car or watch the latest soap opera on television. Either way, it’s not that different. Mrs. Trapdoor: Okay, we all need to switch off now and then, but the kids see are permanently hooked up to some gadget that Stops them communicating with others. My son is constantly in his own bubble; if he’s not on the phone to a friend then he’s ‘shuffling’ and focused on his music player, and don’t get me started on these new games and films he watches on a ridiculously small screen. Catkin: It’s the latest technology. It solves the problem of what film you all want to watch on television. He’s just ‘zoning out’; its what we all do. In your day you would have gone to your room. Well, now we can block out situations hat are stressful. Mrs. Trapdoor: What? Like family life? You see that’s what worries me. He’s there in the room with us, but he’s not really there. Ail: Well, it depends on how high the volume is! I can easily listen to my music as well as tune in to what’s being said around me. If my mother starts an argument, then I just turn the volume up to the maximum! Brat: That’s how I like to listen to my music nanny. Loud. Mrs. Trapdoor: You see that also concerns me. New studies prove it is dangerous to listen to really loud music as it can cause hearing loss. [25] Catkin: Well, what about you and your laptop? You’re always hunched over it typing, risking injury to your back and your hands. You see, you condemn our use of technology, but you forget how much people older than us rely on it. Plus, if anything goes wrong with your new devices, you usually ask us to fix it. Mrs. Trapdoor: Okay, I know you belong to the technological society, but it doesn’t stop me worrying about your health. My laptop isn’t a miniscule gadget that requires me to risk my eyesight to see the screen. The keys on your game players are so small that you could suffer from repetitive strain injury or even arthritis in the future. Catkin: get your point. However, we know that we should have breaks when our eyes get tired or our fingers ache. Mrs. Trapdoor: What about the dangers of walking around or cycling whilst the latest rap song is blaring in your ears? You’re oblivious to the traffic around you and you risk being in an accident. What’s more, someone could attack you as you wouldn’t be aware of their presence. Ail: It is stupid to lock yourself up in your own world in a busy city, but is it very different from adult motorists talking on their mobiles and causing accidents? Mrs. Trapdoor: But it’s in cities where I see most teenagers not interacting with hats going on around them, and they don’t even mutter please or thank you to others who serve them. Ail: You can’t blame these devices for bad manners. Don’t tell me that adults aren’t tempted to block out the noise and stress of public transport! I saw an old guy with headphones on in the subway, blissfully unaware of his surroundings. Mrs. Trapdoor: Everyone over thirty looks old to you lot! My point is still relevant. I’m not just concerned about noise. I’ve even heard of discos where teenagers listen and dance to their own choice of music on their own headphones. Catkin: Hey, that’s a good idea! The world is changing. By the way, is that your cell phone ringing? A very warm welcome to one and all in the Science Club ! Does any one here know that technology could be dated back to the pre historic era? Well, before we get into that, lets define technology. As we all know , our lives revolve around technological advancements right from basic appliances like a fan or air conditioner to your Phone. Engineers all over the world strive to improve the quality of life, by inventing user friendly devices by which, life becomes comfortable. Who could say ‘NO’ to ease and luxury in the fast advancing world Nicola Tests, the father of modern technology, as ridiculed by scientists then for inventing very important tools like the radio, Cray the AC and DC motor. Some did not accept his theory, but least did they imagine, so many years later a life without these modern appliances. Technology should be encouraged when it comes to enriching a person’s being. The very discovery of the ‘flint’ stone is considered a technological advancement without which the discovery of fire would have been next to impossible. As the saying goes ‘Necessity is the mother of invention’, the thirst and desire to learn and aspire is what drove cave man to improve his lifestyle. If only he did not do so, we would all remain in darkness till date. Since then, discoveries big or small have had a positive impact on the outlook of people and the way they choose to lead life. Not only has technology impacted the world towards fun and enjoyment, but also helped him have a larger life span , thanks to the advancements in the field Of healthcare. Technology alone has helped diagnose and treat life threatening diseases that could possibly wipe out our very existence on this planet. Hence, encouraging such endeavourers is an important step towards a healthy life. The past decade has seen profound increase in the use of entertainment technology by children, some as young as 1 year of age. It is hard to find kids who would prefer playing basket ball in the open to a SSP indoors. Doctors world wide believe , that ‘attachment’ to technology has ‘detached’ children from humanity as they would interact better with a Graphical User Interface than a fellow human being. Brain development research suggests that the frontal cortex of a child’s brain is at risk where he looses impulse control and becomes more violent. Apart from this, the Electromagnetic radiations that are emitted from these gadgets are remarry causes of sensory and motor disorders in children. Being a couch potato , with a TV remote in one hand and a snack in the other is one such thing you can’t miss in a household with kids. Unhealthy snacking and lack of physical exercise and fresh air causes obesity which endanger their lifespan. However, recent advancements in the field of modern gadgets does cause concern in the minds of the previous generation. The pods and loud music , generally used to De-stress, by teenagers causes serious hearing disorders. Decades ago, fun was about meeting up with friends and family over a social adhering, and now that children prefer chatting online to meeting up, parents do get a little worried. The worry ends up in reflecting badly on technological improvements. Besides, they overlook the fact that even they require gadgets to complete their daily tasks even as simple as sending an email and turn to youngsters to certain stuff they can’t handle. Overall, rating technological advancements as a bane would be unfair to the present generation has it has so many positives to it. To wrap up my speech, would like to say a few words on how a rational use of technology could improve the outlook of children. Firstly, to the parents who think advancements would prove to be a disadvantage to their children, I suggest they ensure the exposure is under their supervision and subtly handled. Secondly, technology is a limitless field of science where there is so much to learn and gather that, exposing our kids to it, would bring positive results as they would learn so much more. How to cite Speech Writing, Papers Speech Writing Free Essays string(65) " expressing and arguing a point of view clearly and effectively\." INTRODUCTION: ASSESSMENT OF SPEAKING AND LISTENING SKILLS IN ENGLISH (ASL) CCE (Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation) the flagship project of CBSE has clearly outlined the significance of speaking and listening skills as part of co-scholastic areas of achievement by every learner and also stresses the clear integration of evaluation of speaking and listening skills as a part of the curriculum transaction. The formative assessment of these two skills along with other skills have been formally provisioned under CCE . But in the absence of Summative Assessment, we have not positioned the learner’s proficiency in Speaking and Listening thereby leading to a wash back effect of very little or no importance given to Speaking and Listening Skills in many classrooms . We will write a custom essay sample on Speech Writing or any similar topic only for you Order Now As a result a large population of students passes out of schools with inadequate competence in expressive communication skills. As good communication skills raise the self esteem of a student, CBSE essentially desires that the students acquire proficiency in it by the time they leave the portals of the school. In the present day global markets, speaking and listening are considered to be the essential skills of real life. Since CBSE has the onerous responsibility of assessing scholastic and co-scholastic achievement levels of students in over 12000 schools affiliated to it , it has been felt for a long time that CBSE must focus on assessing speaking and listening skills for qualification as Summative Evaluation as much for Formative Assessment . Considering this, CBSE proposes to give weightage in Formative and Summative assessments in ASL (Assessment of Speaking and Listening Skills). This weightage is clearly specified in the 2014 curriculum document uploaded in the CBSE Academic website. Guidelines for teachers to assess Speaking and Listening Skills in the term-end examination: LISTENING The Listening Comprehension section tests the candidate’s ability to listen for basic interpersonal, instructional and academic purposes. A number of sub-skills need to be developed in the every day classroom transaction. Given below are some of the sub-skills of listening which need to be assessed in the formative and summative assessments: i. i. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Listening for specific information Listening for general understanding Predictive listening Inferential listening Listening for pleasure Intensive listening Evaluative listening 1|Page Role of Assessor: An assessor is a person who is assigned the job of assessing a candidate’s performance in any of the skills that is to be assessed. For the purpose of the Summative Assessment, an assessor will be a t eacher who would also be an examiner or an interlocutor who will conduct the examination and do the assessment if skills. It is extremely important to keep in mind the factors listed below as they can significantly influence the expected outcome of the Listening Test. Therefore, due care and attention must be given to each of the following: ? ? ? ? ? ? Size of the room Seating arrangements Acoustics of the room Equipment used Quality of the recording of the Listening Input Quality of the oral rendering of the Listening Input (in case it is to be read aloud by the Examiner), in terms of volume, clarity, enunciation, intonation, pace etc Test Administration: For the Assessor (Teacher) 1 2 3 4 5 6. Select the time and date of the assessment. Plan the seating arrangements in advance. Decide exactly as to how much time is to be reserved for instructions or any possible interaction regarding clarifications etc and for the actual test. Make the announcement giving General Instructions directed to the Candidate before the recording is played/before the reading of the text. Adhere strictly to the time specified for each of the three phases of the Test (Pre-listening, While Listening and Post-Listening) The general instruction given below should be followed while conducting the test. The Listening Test The Listening test comprises of a variety of task. These tasks are graded according to the length of the task and the difficulty level. Schools may download the sample tasks and reorganize them in two parts transcripts and the marking scheme for the interlocutor or the assessor and the worksheets for the students on which student swill write answers. General Instructions for Students You are not allowed to ask questions or interrupt the Assessor at any point. 1 2 3 You are being tested on your Listening Skills. You will hear a set of recordings of the Listening Input or listen to a reading of the Listening Input. Each of the recording will be played twice. In case there is an oral rendering of the Listening Input, it shall take place twice. 2|Page 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 You are required to answer a set of questions based on each of the Listening Inputs. The test consists of 4/sections. You are required to attempt all 4 sections of the test. Familiarize yourself with the questions on the Worksheet. It will help you to answer them later on. After you have listened to the input, you will be given specified minutes to answer the questions on your worksheet You may answer the questions on your Worksheet while listening. Do not interact/comment until you have moved out of the Examination Room Assessment of Listening The marking key is prepared before the test is administered. It will take about a period of 30-35 minutes to conduct a listening test. At the end of the test, the answer scripts should be collected and marked. It is objectives type of marking. Hence, it is suggested that scripts may be marked on the same day. SPEAKING Speaking skill has acquired a very important place in the communication skills. Like listening skills – a number of subskills of speaking need to be consciously developed amongst students. Some of the sub-skills are given below which can be assessed. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. speaking intelligibly using appropriate word stress, sentence stress and intonation patterns. narrating incidents and events, real or imaginary in a logical sequence. presenting oral reports or summaries; making announcements clearly and confidently. expressing and arguing a point of view clearly and effectively. You read "Speech Writing" in category "Papers" taking active part in group discussions, showing ability to express agreement or disagreement, summarising ideas, eliciting the views of others, and presenting own ideas. expressing and responding to personal feelings, opinions and attitudes. articipating in spontaneous spoken discourse in familiar social situations. General Instructions 1 The total administration time for the speaking test is approximately 10-12 minutes 2 3 4 The speaking test will be conducted for two students at a time. There will be a single teacher to function as the Interloc utor and Assessor. The Interlocutor/ Assessor should be a qualified English Teacher The Speaking Test: Role of Assessor: 1. The (Assessor) should ensure that the room is quiet and has good acoustics. 3|Page 2. The tone, manner and body language of the Interlocutor should be relaxed, encouraging and pleasant. Care should be taken to make the candidates feel at ease. 3. Students must not be discouraged from making a fresh start in case they are unable to do so at the first attempt. 4. The Assessor needs to be flexible, sympatric and reassuring in her/his demeanour. 5. The Assessor should also be a proficient user of the language in order to conduct the speaking test successfully. For e. g . the interlocutor should be skilled in Elicitation techniques. For e. g. Yes/No questions should generally be avoided. 6. Alternatively questions such as†¦ Explain how/Why†¦ Tell me what you think of†¦. 7. Ideally, the Assessor should award marks after the candidates have left the Examination Room. If necessary, notes can be made discreetly to be later in the scoring so that it does not make the candidates unduly tense and self-conscious. The Speaking test is divided into three sections as given below: I General Introduction The Interlocutor converses with the two candidates. Simple warm up questions based on the candidates’ names, place of residence, leisure preferences etc are asked. II Mini Presentation In this section the Interlocutor gives each candidate the choice to pick up a Role Card or a Cue Card with a topic written on it. The candidates are given 1 minute to prepare. The assessor should be ready with sheets of paper and pencil. Candidates may organize their thoughts and ideas. Prior to the day of the speaking test, as an assistance to students to prepare for the presentations, a teacher can give a choice of 20 to 30 topics in class to students so that they can prepare the topics and organise their ideas on each topic . Similar topics can be given in the formal testing . Please note that candidates are not allowed to write full length answers. They may jot down points only in the sheets given by the Interlocutor. Therefore, pencil and paper should be provided on the table. Students are not allowed to carry pen, paper or mobile in the examination room. After one minute, each student will be given 2 minutes each to present his/her ideas. In case, a student is unable to speak during /for the allotted time, the (Assessor) may ask some rounding off questions. III Pair Interaction The third section of the test is for 3 minutes. Both candidates are given a verbal or visual stimulus and asked to respond to it Both the candidates are given a total of 3 minutes to interact. Both of them will talk together. Closing 4|Page The closing is for 1 minute duration only. In case a student has not been able to speak or has been unable to speak owing to nervousness, the dominance of the second candidate or any other factor, then, the (interlocutor) may use the 1 minute to give a fresh opportunity to that student. Note: In the Summative II assessment it has been proposed to record the candidates’ performance in the MP 3 players/ recorders, so as to validate and make the test reliable and fair. Assessment of Speaking Assessors should familiarise themselves with the assessment scale of speaking. While the students are giving their presentation, assessors may refer to descriptors. It is they may share these indicators with the students while formative assessment tasks are given. As the test will be conducted for two students at a time, it is advised that two to three teachers sit in separate rooms to conduct the assessment of students of one section at a time. Hence 48 students can be assessed simultaneously within one and half hours, in three batches of 16 students each. Assessors are advised to pay due attention to and familiarize themselves with the design of the test items. The sample test items are given here as Annexures here. Similar test items can be framed according to the need and level of students. The descriptors are given below for reference: Interaction ? 5. Can initiate logically develop simple conversation on familiar topics Can take turns appropriately ? 4. Interaction is adequately initiated and developed Can take turn but needs little prompting ? 3. Develops interactions adequately makes however minimal effort to initiate conversation Needs constant prompting to take turns ? 2. Contributions are often unrelated to those of the other speaker ? 1. Contributions are mainly unrelated to those of other speaker Shows hardly any initiative in the development of conversation Very limited interaction 1 Insufficient accuracy in pronunciation; many grammatically errors Communicatio n is severely affected ? ? ? ? ? Generally passive in the development of conversation ? Pronunciation ? Can pronounce correctly articulate clearly ? 4 Mostly ? correct pronunciation clear articulation Can be clearly understood ? most of the time; very few phonological errors ? Is always comprehensibl e; uses appropriate intonation ? 3 Largely correct ? pronunciation clear articulation except occasional ? errors Some expressions cause stress without compromising with understanding of spoken discourse. ? 2 Frequently unintelligible articulations Frequent phonol ogical errors Major communication problems ? ? 5|Page Fluency Coherence 5 ? Speaks fluently almost with no repetition minimal hesitation ? Develops topic fully coherently ? 4 Speaks without noticeable effort, with a little repetition Demonstrates hesitation to find words or use correct grammatical structures and/or self correction Topics not fully developed to merit Can express with some flexibility and appropriacy on most of the topics Demonstrates ability to use complex forms and sentence structures most of the time; expresses with adequate vocabulary to express 3 Is willing to speak at length, however repetition is noticeable Hesitates and/or self corrects; occasionally loses coherence Topics mainly developed, but usually not logically concluded Communicates with limited flexibility and appropriacy on most of the topics Sometimes uses complex forms and sentence structures; has limited vocabulary to/describe/exp ress new points ? ? 2 Usually fluent; produces simple speech fluently, but loses coherence in complex communication Often hesitates and/or resorts to slow speech Topics partly developed; not always concluded logically Communicates with limited flexibility and appropriacy on some of the topics Complex forms and sentence structures are rare; exhibits limited vocabulary to express new ideas ? Noticeably/lon g pauses; rate of speech is slow Frequent repetition and/or self correction Links only basic sentences; breakdown of coherence evident Demonstrates almost no flexibility, and mostly struggles for appropriate words Uses very basic vocabulary to express viewpoints. ? ? ? ? ? ? Vocabulary Grammar ? Can express with some flexibility and appropriacy on a variety of topics such as family, hobbies, work, travel and current events frequently uses complex forms and sentence structures; has enough vocabulary to express himself/herself ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 6|Page ASSESSMENT Grand Total Sr. No. Name of Student Interaction Pronunciation Fluency Coherence Vocabulary and Grammar Total 20 ? can we just write (5) 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 7|Page 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Signature of the Assessor 8|Page Set – I Assessment of Listening Skills Sample Tasks Class – IX LISTENING Instructions: a) There are 10 questions in this set. Answer all the questions b) In the first part you will listen to five short extracts. As you listen to each one, answer the questions in your answer sheet. c) Before you begin to listen, read the questions quickly and get familiar with the questions. 0 Marks Part – I 1. Transcript of the police announcement: Here is an announcement by a police officer on a local city channel. This is regarding an alleged criminal who is evading the arrest. Anyone who has a clue can come forward and inform the police at 100. So, here is the descriptionThe criminal has a broad face with a thick mo ustache and a beard. Which one of the following faces are they describing? A B C D Tick the correct answer: A. B. C. D. Ans: C ____ ____ ____ ____ 2. Here is another situation, listen to it carefully. This is about the garden of Suresh. Transcript Suresh does not want people walking around in his vegetable garden that he has nurtured with great care. What sign board should he put up? 9|Page B C D Tick the correct answer A. B. C. D. Ans: C ____ ____ ____ ____ 3. Monu wants a penpal. Listen to his description of himself and fill in the columns given below: Transcript: Hi! My name is Monu and I’m from India. I live in Raipur near a lake. Since I have always lived here, I love water sports. I am twelve years old and love reading about plants and animals that live in the water. My box number is P. O. Box 002200. Fill in the blanks: Age Nationality . Here is the dialogue between Amit and Anand who have just completed their schooling. They are talking about some of the organizations which offer scholarships to students for different purposes. Amit is research minded and keen to take up a career in agriculture, which organization of the world would he apply to? Transcript: Listen to the dialogue and write your answer: Amit: I h eard about a Tall Clubs International that gives a scholarship of 1000/- per month to men above 6 feet and women above 5 feet 10â€Å" tall. Interesting†¦.. Anand: Oh! really, my height is only 5â€Å" so I am not eligible. Jokes apart, I have found a society â€Å"CV Raman Society† that awards scholarships to students who have interest in Science Technology. Amit: No, I don’t have any interest in Science Technology. I want to pursue a career in agro industry. Anand: So, in that case, The National Paotato Council has a number of scholarships for students who want to work for agro industries. Amit: But does it award scholarships to undergraduates? 10 | P a g e Anand: Yes, it does. There is another one that gives 500/- per mother to graduates or undergraduates, I will have to find out the field for which it gives. Amit: Thank you, please let me know which organizations award the scholarships. Ans: Amit will opt for___________________ Transcript: 5. Joy wants to live in a village near the city. It should be a small house with low doors and ceilings. He would prefer it to be located near the sea. Which house would you recommend for him? A B C D Tick the correct answer A. B. C. D. Ans: B ____ ____ ____ ____ Part – II Instructions: a) You will now listen to the talk by Dr. Praveen Chawla on healthy foods. b) There are five questions to be answered. Read the questions quickly before you listen to the talk c) Now listen to the talk nd write your answers ‘Nature has given us everything that our body needs. If we take care we can avoid pills. Did you know that Mushrooms not only make tasty dishes but are a rich source of Vitamin D so essential for healthy bones? Regular consumption of mushrooms aids in better hearing power too. You must have heard of the Banana smile. Believe it or not th is fruit can actually put a smile on your face. It contains tryptophan, a protein which once digested converts into a chemical neurotransmitter called serotonin which is a very important mood regulating chemical and works like an antidepressant. 11 | P a g e Broccoli has also come to be called a disease busting vegetable. It can prevent cancer. About 2000 years ago the curative powers of Ginger for all stomach related problems were discovered. It helps digestion, cures nausea and prevents bowel tumours Cheddar cheese is a very rich source of calcium and phosphate. These strengthen bones and muscles and reduce risk of osteoporosis. Grapes, which look so much like the lobules in the lungs, are rich in proanthocyanidin a chemical which helps circulate fresh oxygen to the blood stream thereby reducing the risk of cancer and also reduce the severity of asthma. If you cut a tomato into half, you will notice that it has four chambers just like our heart. Tomatoes are a great source of lycopene, a plant chemical that reduces the risk of heart disease and several cancers. This also helps lower the unhealthy effects of LDL cholesterol. The gnarled look of a walnut, mimicking the appearance of a human brain, is perhaps the only fruit rich in Omega -3 and fatty acids tends to ward off dementia and to some extent Alzheimer’s disease. (286 words) I. Fill in the blanks with a word or phrase 6. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ are rich in Vitamin D and help in good hearing. 7. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. ood regulating chemical can make you feel happy. Ans: Banana 8. Broccoli keeps away †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Ans: 1. Mushrooms 2. Banana 3. Cancer II. Tick the most appropriate answer from the choices given below: 9. The food containing lycopene which reduces heart attack risk is A. grape B. tomato C. cheese D. walnut Ans: B. tomato 10. In the talk, Dr is advising people to A. eat a balanced diet B. be happy; live healthy C. live close to nature D. eat healthy food Ans: D. eat healthy food Closing This is the end of your listening skill assessment. Check your answers. (2 minutes) Hand over your answer sheet to the assessor. 12 | P a g e Set – II Assessment of Listening Skills Sample Tasks Class – IX LISTENING Instructions: a) There are ten questions in this test. b) Answer the questions as you listen to the scripts. c) you will listen to four shorts extracts. As you listen to each one, answer the questions. I. Now listen to the news report and write correct answer 10 Marks Transcript 1. Kathmandu, May 14: Thirteen Indians were among the 15 people killed when their 20-seater aircraft slammed into a cliff in western Nepal, less than seven months after 10 Indian tourists were killed in an air accident. Six people miraculously survived the crash. A. B. C. D. Ans. B There was an explosion before the crash The crash was a consequence of collision with a cliff There have been several air crashes in the recent past Indians always die in the air crashes in and around Nepal Transcript 2. E mailing has enabled us to communicate messages to one another at a very fast pace. However, there are times when we have to post important letters and documents by surface or air mail. The postal department is very slow. Listen to the comment by an officer to his colleague. What option do you think the speaker would NOT opt for? A. B. C. D. Ans. C e-mail air mail postal department surface mail Transcript 3. City dwellers often depend on cars, buses or metros to travel from one place to another. Bicycles used to be a popular mode of travel once. I think we need to popularise them once again if we need to tackle the pollution problem. The speaker advocates the use of †¦ Now; listen to an environment activist who is talking to one of his friends. A. cars B. buses C. bicycles D. metros Ans. C 13 | P a g e Transcript 4. ‘The Mars rover Curiosity landed on the Martian surface to begin a two-year mission, seeking evidence that the Red Planet once hosted ingredients for life,’ Nasa said. Mission controllers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory near Los Angeles burst into applause and cheered as they received signals relayed by a Mars orbiter confirming that the rover had survived a make-or-break descent and touched down within its landing zone. What is the news report about? A. B. C. D. Ans. B invention of Curiosity landing of Curiosity happiness at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory possibility of living on Mars Transcript 5. A V-chip has been developed. In addition to spelling out the age-based ratings, letters will be displayed to warn parents if a show contains violence or other objectionable content. A group of major networks and producers have agreed to go along with the system, but NBC will not. What does the V-chip do? A. B. C. D. It allows the cable company to monitor what TV programs you watch It turns your TV into a â€Å"virtual reality† computer. It allows parents to block out certain programs, so their children cannot watch them. It reduces the use of the remote control device Ans. C II Now you will listen to a long text a) Before you listen to the talk, read the questions for 1 minute. b) Your will listen to a talk about Tigers. Transcript: Tigers are being loved to death. Tourists desperate for a glimpse of a tiger are damaging habitat and harassing tigers. This by no means decides that tiger tourism or wildlife tourism is a bad thing. Wildlife tourism has a lot of advantages. Wildlife tourism helps people of the area who get employ in tourism. In this way, wildlife is valued, rather than poached, or encroached upon. Wildlife also inspires the people who see it. For many, a dramatic view of one of the world’s great beasts — a tiger, a leopard, a whale — is a life-changing experience. Such a sighting makes people aware of the fragility of the planet and the folly of our short-term thinking. Above all, it prompts people to step back from our traditional species chauvinism. Wildlife tourism is similarly equivocal. When carried out with wisdom and responsibility, it is the best possible news for the creatures and the people of the area, and for the people doing the touring. Wildlife tourism can sometimes, with the best of intentions, be stupid, greedy and destructive. 14 | P a g e An adjustment of practice in India’s wildlife tourism is a good thing. It is not tourists that are killing off tigers: it is, above all, the world’s ever-increasing human population, and its incontinent need for room to live in. 231 words) A. State whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) 6. People’s fascination with the tigers is causing them harm. 7. Wildlife tourism should be banned. 8. Tigers tourists are destroying their living places. Ans: TRUE Ans: FALSE Ans: TRUE B. Fill in the blanks with a word or phrase. 9. Wildlife tourism helps in †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ . 10. Ans: employing people/ generating employment Wise and responsible behaviour is expected from tourists who go for wild life sightings Ans: human population. 15 | P a g e Set – I Assessment of Speaking Skills Sample Tasks Class – IX SPEAKING Instructions: ) The speaking test will be conducted for two students at a time. b) Students should not have pen, paper, mobile phone etc. c) The teacher will be an interlocutor and an assessor both. I. GENERAL INTRODUCTION – (1 min) (The Interlocutor makes the students feel comfortable) Interlocutor: Good morning, I am ———————-. Hope you are looking forward to this brief interaction. Student A: Yes —————-/ I am ——————Interlocutor: And what about your? (Looking at student B) Student B: ——————————–Interlocutor: What do you do in your spare time? To Student B) Student B: ———————————–Interlocutor: And how about you? (To student A) Student A: ———-Interlocutor: What makes you special? (To student A) Student A: ———-Interlocutor: What about you? (To Student B) Student B: ———-Interlocutor: What do admire in other people? (To student A) Student A: ———-Interlocutor: How about you? (To Student B) Student B: ———————–Interlocutor: Thank you, this is the end of the first part of the test. II MINI PRESENTATION (1 min Preparation+ 2 each min each for the students= 5 min) 0 Marks Now, in this part of the test, candidates are given a topic with some points. They have a minute to prepare on the given topic and two minutes for the presentation. 16 | P a g e Students are given the following sets of in puts on cards or papers. Three options are given. Only one option has to be used at a time. Interlocutor: (To both A and B) Here is your topic. Both of you prepare your presentation on it. You are given one minute for preparation. Please use pencil and paper for writing points. After one minute I am going to ask you to present your views on the topic. I can ask anyone of you first. So be prepared and get ready. (Interlocutor hands over one card with cues to both A B) I. 1. 2. 3. Mobile phones in school Security Multiple uses Distraction If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? Do you think mobile phones should be allowed in school? ? Give two advantages of carrying a mobile phone to school. ? Do you think advantages outweigh the disadvantages? II. Changing Concepts and Methodologies of Teaching-learning in India 1. Examination Pattern 2. Variety of Subjects 3. Assessment Parameters If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? Do you like this present system of evaluation? ? Do you learn better when you are stress free? ? Do you think some students take this system very casually? III. An incident/person/book that changed my life. 1. What it is 2. What it is about 3. How it affected me If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? What was that specific quality that remained with you? ? What did you learn? ? How would you like to be now? III PAIR INTERACTION (3 mins) Interlocutor: In this part of the test the candidates A and B will discuss the given topic together . The interlocutor can refer to the assessment scale while the candidates are discussing together. Students respond to visual/ verbal stimulus. 1. Changing roles of women- a multitasker, works in office, answers phone calls, always under pressure of work. Working at home additional. 17 | P a g e 2. Growing Pollution, all kinds of pollution water, air and tourism pollution. 3. Discipline issues in schools are now becoming a serious concern. As responsible citizens discuss i. ii. iii. Kinds of indiscipline issues Reasons for growing indiscipline Advice / solutions to your fellow students. Closing (1 min) Thank you very much. That was the end of your test. The interlocutor retrieves the pencil and paper . 18 | P a g e Set – II Assessment of Speaking Skills Sample Tasks Class IX SPEAKING Instructions: a) The speaking test will be conducted for two students at a time. b) Students should not have pen, paper, mobile etc. c) The teacher will act as an interlocutor (who is involved in a conversation) as well as an assessor who will also give marks to the candidates. 10 Marks I GENERAL INTRODUCTION (1 min) The Interlocutor makes the students feel comfortable) Interlocutor: Hello! Good morning, I am ———————-. May I know your name please? Student A: My name is —————-/ I am ——————Interlocutor: And yours? (Looking at student B) Student B: â€⠀Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€œInterlocutor: Where do you live? (To student B) Student B: ———————————–Interlocutor: How about you? (To student A) Student A: ——————————-Interlocutor: What do you do in your leisure? (To student A) Student A: ——————Interlocutor: And what do you do in your free time? To student B) Student B: ———————————–Interlocutor: What hobby would you like to cultivate? (To student A) Student A: ———-Interlocutor: How about you? (To student B) Student B: ————— 19 | P a g e II MINI PRESENTATION: In this part of the test teacher will give 1 minute to prepare and 2 minutes each to both stude nts to present (5 min) Oral examiner can frame any inputs; the following two frames are suggested: (1) To student B, describe something that you own and you value it tremendously. You have 1 minute to prepare and 2 minutes to present. ? ? ? Where did you get it from? How long have you had it? What do you use it for? Why is it so important for you? If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? ? ? Did you buy it/ was it a gift? Would it be easy to replace it? Is it valuable in term of money? (2) To student A: You will be given one minute to prepare on your most memorable journey you will have 2 minute to describe your journey. (Each student is given 2 minutes to present) For student A ? ? ? ? Where did you travel to? What was the highlight of your visit? monument/temple/park/relatives) Which place would you like to visit next? Why are journeys relaxing? If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off ques tions ? Was it a trip organized by the school? ? Did you go with the family? ? Was it a place you had never seen before? ? What fascinated you? Ask student B to ask a question. To student A: (Repeat) (2) Qualities that I value in a friend For student B ? ? ? ? Qualities I like in a friend Why do I consider these qualities important How many of these qualities do I have What is that one quality that I would like to inculcate If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? Do you have a lot of friends? ? Why did you pick on them? ? Why do your friends care for you? Ask student A to ask a question 20 | P a g e (3) Changing role of women ? ? ? ? Varied jobs Working mothers Financial security Economicsocial independence If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? ? ? Do women in your family work outside the house? Do you appreciate women working? Why? Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages? III PAIR INTERACTION (3 mins): Instructions: a) Teacher to both students A and B Look at the visual carefully. Talk together for 2 minutes. Students are given 1 minute to think and prepare. And then their respond to visual/ verbal stimulus. (1) Child Marriage (2) Growing Obesity 21 | P a g e Verbal Stimulus (3) How do you imagine life in cities in the future? The interlocutor can give the following hints: ? Work ? Leisure/Entertainment ? Travel (4) What responsibilities do you think individuals have towards the environment? The interlocutor can give the following hints: ? Life style ? Shopping ? Finance IV Closing (1 min) Thank you very much. That was the end of your test. The interlocutor retrieves the pencil and paper. 22 | P a g e Set – I Assessment of Listening Skills Sample Tasks Class XI LISTENING Instructions: a) You will listen to the librarian of a new town library talking to a group of people who are visiting the library b) Before you listen to the talk, look at the plan of the Town Library given in your answer sheet. 1. As you listen, answer questions 1 – 5 in not more than one or two words. 20 Marks Transcript: Good morning, dear students. Now we are at the entrance to the town library. My name is Anita, and I’m the chief librarian here, and you’ll usually find me at the desk just by the main entrance here. So I’d like to tell you about the way the library is organized, and what you will find where. All of you have a plan in front of you. Well, as you see my desk is just on the right as you enter, and opposite this the first room on your left has an excellent collection of reference books. Here is the place where people can read or study peacefully. Just beyond the librarian’s desk on the right is a room where we have an up- to- date periodicals section. This houses the newspapers and magazines. This room also has a photocopier in case you want to photocopy any of the articles. If you carry straight on you’ll come into a large room and this is the main library area. There is fiction in the shelves on the left, and non-fiction materials on your right, and on the shelves on the far wall there is an excellent collection of books relating to local history. We hope to add a section on local tourist attractions too, later in the year. As you walk through the far door in the library just past the fiction shelves, there is a seminar room. This room can be booked for meeting or talks. The next door leads to that is the children’s library, which has a good collection of stories and picture books for youngster below eleven. Then there’s a large room to the right of the library area – that’s the multimedia collection, where you can browse through and borrow videos and DVDs. We also have CD-Roms you can borrow to use on your computer at home. It was originally the art collection but that’s been moved to another building. And that’s about it – oh, yes before I forget; there’s also the Library Office, on the left of the librarian’s desk. Ok, now I hope you all are fairly well acquainted with the layout of the library. (360 words) 23 | P a g e Instructions: You will listen to two short extracts. As you listen, tick the correct answer. Transcript: 11. The tiger population has dipped from thousands to few hundreds. Look at the graph depicting the tiger world population which is very dismal. It reflects a dramatic fall in the tiger population. Identify the graph. Tick your answer. A. B. C. D. A Ans: D B C D 1 mark 12. Now look at the Pie chart of populations of English native speakers. The pie chart reveals that the USA by far had an overwhelming majority. This was followed by the United Kingdom. Australia seemed to have the least numbers of English native speakers. Choose the pie chart which reflects the situation of native speakers of English. B A C D A B C D Ans: D 24 | P a g e 4 Marks 1. Before listening to the narration by one of the campers please read the question 1 – 4 given in your answer sheet. Listen to the narration and with the words that you hear. Transcript: One day in 1924, five of us who were camping in the Cascade Mountains of Washington saw a group of huge apelike creatures coming out of the woods. We retreated in terror and locked urselves in our cabin. The creatures pelted rocks against the walls of the cabin. All of us inside were quaking in our shoes. 8. 9. 10. 11. The number of campers†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Place of camping†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Intimidated by†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Method of attackâ⠂¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 4. pelted rocks Ans: 1. Five 2. Cascade Mountains 3. huge apelike creatures 2. Here is a dialogue between Neetu Kumar and the receptionist. Neetu Kumar is fixing a doctor’s appointment. Listen to this dialogue and answer the questions given in your sheet. Transcript: Receptionist: Good morning, KVG Hospital. How can I help you? Neetu: I am Neetu Kumar. I’d like an appointment with your cardiologist, Dr Suresh Reddy, please. R: For when would you like the appointment? N: For tomorrow? R: Please hold the line. I’ll check if I can fit you in tomorrow. N: Sure, thanks. R: Thanks for holding. I’m afraid Dr Suresh is fully booked tomorrow. Would you like to see our other cardiologist Dr Dinesh Mehra instead? N: I’m sorry, but we’d prefer to see Dr Reddy. R: That’s all right. In that case, would you like an appointment with him for the day after? N: That’d be fine. R: Would 12 noon suit you, Ms Kumar? N: Sure. R: Could I have the patient’s name and age? N: It’s Mrs Prema Kumar. She’s 65. R: Is this her first visit to KVG? 25 | P a g e N: Yes. R: Are you consulting Dr Reddy on your physician’s advice? N: No, a friend of mine suggested we see him. R: OK, I’ve put you down for 12 noon, Friday, 15 September. Please be here by 11. 30. N: Thanks! R: You’re welcome. Can I have your phone number, please? N: 9940109932 R: Thank you, Ms Kumar, have a nice day! Task Fill in the information in the appointment book. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Doctor ________________________ Day and date __________________________ Time ________________________________ Name of atient _________________________ Age _______________________ Referral Yes/No If Yes, doctor’s name ____________________________ Contact person __________________________ Contact phone number ___________________________ 26 | P a g e Set – I Assessment of Speaking Skill Sample Task Class – XI I GENERAL INTRODUCTION (1 min) 10 Mar ks (The Interlocutor makes the students feel comfortable) Interlocutor: Good morning, I am ———————-. Student A: My name is —————-/ I am ——————Interlocutor: And yours? (looking at student B) Student B:——————————–Interlocutor: How would you describe yourself? to student B) Student B: ———————————–Interlocutor: What about you? (to student A) Student A: —————Interlocutor: What is that one thing that you would like to change in yourself? (to student A) Student A:———-(The interlocutor/assessor gives instructions for the mini presentation. ) II MINI PRESENTATION In the mini presentation, students are expected to speak for two minutes on a given topic. Th e interlocutor gives them pencil and paper to write points. They are not supposed to write complete answers. (1 min Preparation+ 2 each min for students= 5 min) The input cards are given to the students. Any one out of the four can be given to the pair. The Interlocutor may ask any student A or B begin first. After one student has finished his or her presentation, the student should be asked to ask a question on the mini presentation. The same process should be repeated with the other student also. a. What skill would you like to learn most in the future? Why? (1) My choice of a career ? ? ? Why is it important? How do you hope to achieve your goal? How do you think would you be a productive member of the society? If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions 27 | P a g e ? How did you decide on your choice? Do you have other options? (2) What would you prefer–life in Rural or Urban area? ? ? ? Choice Three reasons Difference If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? Have you been exposed to both the life styles? ? How is it different? (3) Advantages of co education ? ? ? Society co nsists of men and women Rapport is built Helps in adult life If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? ? What do you prefer? Why? Does it add to your comfort? (4) A book that I enjoyed reading ? ? Why did you pick up the book? How long did you take to read it? Genre of the book If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? What kind of books do you enjoy? ? Have you heard or of seen a book that has been filmed? III PAIR INTERACTION (3 mins) Students respond to visual/ verbal stimulus. Students AB look at the picture and talk together to describe it. (1) Rag Pickers 28 | P a g e Teacher could ask prompt question: 1. 2. What are the environmental hazards if the waste is not managed in time and properly? What kind of a holiday would you prefer? Students look at the pictures and choose one, then talk together? Teacher could ask a prompt question. 3. ? ? ? Studying abroad High cut offs Easy money from parents Brand value and status symbol 4. Changing Values ? things that give status to people in your country ? changes since your parents’ time ? Reasons for changes IV Closing (1 min) 29 | P a g e Assessment of Listening Skills Class XI Set – II 20 Marks Instructions: a) Before listening to the passage on Tsunami read the questions. (1 min) b) Listen to the passage on Tsunami that caused devastation in Japan. While you listening complete the blanks. Transcript: The tsunami that hit Japan on March 11, 2011 has been labelled the country’s worst tragedy since World War II. The 8. 9-magnitude earthquake that hit north-eastern Japan and the 23-feet tsunami it triggered has left a trail of devastation in its wake. After the Ferocious Friday some numbers continue to haunt: tens of thousand dead; even more missing; 4,50,000 rendered homeless. The Japanese are familiar with natural disasters and are trained in handling a calamity and ways of evacuation. Statistics speak of a tremor occurring somewhere in the country about every five minutes with annually there being up to 2,000 quakes. But no amount of preparation proved enough for the recent calamity of colossal proportion. Nature’s fury swept aside every safeguard in place. Many perished in split seconds and those who escaped the wrath pleaded for aid in every possible way. The catastrophe has lead to an outpouring of grief from around the world. The quake-tsunami double blow wrecked parts of a beautiful country and scarred lives. It couldn’t, however, crack the inherent willpower or destroy the strength of character of its beautiful people; the people who have stayed admirably calm under chaos and begun regrouping forces to rebuild what they have lost. Most eyewitness accounts from the affected zones spoke about residents experiencing power outages, shortage of drinking water and food but there being no panic, arson or emotional breakdown, as reported from other countries where similar disasters have struck. It’s temperament reflecting a society that cares for its neighbour. It was not the country’s technical competence which endeared, it was its people. They displayed dignity, discipline and a genuine desire to assist. (274 words) While you listen to the passage, tick the correct option 1. The tsunami of 2011 has been labelled the †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. . the country’s worst tragedy since World War II. b. the country’s worst natural calamity c. the country’s worst earthquake d. the country’s worst economic disaster Ans: b. the country’s worst natural calamity 30 | P a g e 2. The Japanese are familiar with natural disasters because†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. a. there is a tremor in the country about every five minutes b. they have nerves of steel and presence of mind c. they are technologically advanced and can cope with disasters d. they are used to being hit by a tsunami Ans: a. there is a tremor in the country about every five minutes B. Fill in the blanks 3. The quake-tsunami wrecked the beautiful country and scarred lives but it couldn’t destroy †¦.. 4. The Japanese experienced shortage of drinking water and food but they did not resort to†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 5. What endears the Japanese to the world is their †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Ans: 3. the strength of character/ the will power 4. unlawful means/ panic, arson or emotional breakdown 5. dignity, and discipline II. 1. Listen to James talk about his routine, and fill in the blanks given in your answer sheet: Transcript I guess I should tell you about what I do everyday. First, everyone has to get up at 5:30 A. M. The silly old rooster amed Harry loves to wake us up. Next, we have to make our beds and tidy up the cabin before our camp counsellor, Jeff, comes to inspect the place. Then, we have breakfast around 6:30 A. M. After that, we have some free time, so I’ve been going down to the nearby stream to fish for a couple of hours. But yesterday, the only thin g I caught was an old shoe and a tree branch. Great catch, huh? Then when I was trying to swat a mosquito buzzing around my head, I slipped and fell in the stream and lost my fishing pole. That ended my fishing career. 6. 7. 8. 9. James is woken up by†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. The first thing that James does is†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ He eats breakfast at about †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ James talks of two mishaps when he went†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2. Listen to the town planner describes the road. Which one is he talking about. Transcript Many types of road exist around the world. We are looking for well laid out thoroughfare which will be aesthetically laid out with a canopy of trees. 31 | P a g e A B C D Ans. C 3. Match the graphs to the correct definitions Transcript 10. 11. 12. 13. Ans: 1. 2. 3. 4. Sales fell steadily through over the year. Sales rose steadily over the year Sales increased sharply from June. Sales bottomed out in May C A B D A B C D 32 | P a g e 4. Match the images with the correct descriptions B C D Transcript 14. 15. 16. 17. Ans: a. b. c. d. 5. Youngman with dark glasses and a happy face Good-looking young man with black eyes Young man with glasses and a beard Old man with curly hair and glasses D A B C Listen to the telephonic conversation and fill in the blanks Transcript F: Hello Mrunal, Mira here. M: Hi Mira, how are you doing? F: I’m good but busy as always. Actually, I’m completing a project with Wipro. In fact I wanted to talk to you as I’m looking for an assistant – any ideas? M: Is it the database project? F: No, it’s about developing our brand. M: I see. Do you know what kind of person you are trying to find? F: The person needs excellent qualifications – it’s more the creative side of things. Moreover we need the person to be involved in. M: You could give Neera a call. She’ll help you as she’s doing all kinds of consultancy work. Currently she’s an advisor to a couple of large companies I believe. I can email you her details if you like. F: Great, thanks Ans a. b. c. d. 33 | P a g e a project an assistant creative / involved neera 18. Mrunal was busy completing †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 19. Mrunal wanted to Mira to help him find †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 20. Mrunal wanted the person who was†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. and †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Closing 34 | P a g e Assessment of Speaking Skill Set – II Class – XI 10 Marks I GENERAL INTRODUCTION — (1 min) (The Interlocutor makes the students feel comfortable) Interlocutor: Good morning, I am ———————-. Student A: My name is —————-/ I am ——————Interlocutor: And yours? (looking at student B) Student B: ——————————–Interlocutor: What do you do in your leisure time (To student B) Student B: ———————————-Interlocutor: What other hobby would you like to develop? To student A) Student A: —————————â €”—-Interlocutor: what would you like to develop? (To student B) Student B: —————–Interlocutor: who is your favourite actor? (To student A) Student A: ———-Interlocutor: And yours? (To student B) Student B: ————— II MINI PRESENTATION (1 min Preparation + 2 each min for both the students= 5 min) 1. Your school is planning to organize an adventure camp during summer vacations. The Secretary of the School Adventure Club has offered the following three choices. As a member of the club which place would you prefer? Give reasons for your choice. (Interlocutor gives different input card to both students. Four samples are given) ? ? ? Seven day swimming camp at lake Bhimtal Four day trekking camp at Pehalgam, Srinagar Five day river rafting camp at Rishikesh 35 | P a g e 2. Talk about a book you have read recently ? ? ? Why did you decided to read that book? How long did it take to finish the book? What genre of book it was? 3. Talk about your favourite news channel. ? ? ? 4. ? ? ? ? III How often you use this news source Why do you use this channel What other sources you use E-learning. Autonomous learning Adds variety Gives choices Clarifies concepts PAIR INTERACTION (3 mins) Students respond to visual/ verbal stimulus. Students look at the pictures and talk together for three minutes 1. Elderly –sad and lonely, neglected by their family members. Dependent on others for their physical needs. Money not adequate to meet the expenses of medicines. 36 | P a g e 2. E-revolution in India. Awareness in villages about computers. Government has brought out e-tablets which are cost-effective Energy Saving devices in new computers. Closing 37 | P a g e How to cite Speech Writing, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Fundamentals of Travel and Tourism Policies and Practices

Question: 1. Summarise the key historical and current developments in tourism. Identify the different types of tourism (Mass and Special Interest tourism) and explain their characteristics giving examples where appropriate. (LO1) (600 words) 2. There are reasons why tourists visit a particular destination. Discuss the extent literature related to the demand for tourism, particularly looking at tourist behaviour and motivations. Answer: Introduction The report would essentially focus on understanding the historical and current developments that have been generated in the travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom. It would also focus on analysing the factors that contribute in creating the demand and also in motivating tourists to venture into tourism adventures both on the domestic and international fronts. The report would also aim in understanding the elements that are needed to be effectively incorporated for development of resorts. Finally, the report would reflect on the features of public, private and voluntary firms operating in the travel and tourism sector of United Kingdom with effective examples. Historical and Current Developments in Tourism Current developments in the tourism sector are highlighted in terms of growth of arrival of international tourists where during 2014 the number of tourist arrivals grew by around 4.3 percent compared to the previous period totalling to an amount of 1.133 billion. Further, highlights reflect that activities associated with international tourism generated increased revenues of around $1.5 trillion in terms of generation of export revenues. A forecast rendered by the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) reflects that growth in the number of arrivals of international tourists to different regions is increased by around 3 to 4 percent during the 2015 period(UNWTO, 2015). Further, the current trends associated with the tourism sector reflects on the use of internet based technological systems like Smartphones and other gadgets by consumers for reservation activities in hotels and in other transportation mediums like airlines and railways. An estimate carried out during 2014 reflects that around 25 percent of the hotel bookings made by United States based tourists were carried out through the use of mobile devices. Moreover, the development of social networking mediums like Facebook and Twitter are also observed to be increasingly employed by the tourism and travel companies for generation of increased awareness about tourism products and services to a larger number of tourists around the world(Chopra, 2015). Different Types of Tourism The different types of tourism are broadly categorised under two heads like mass and special interest tourisms. Mass tourism denotes to tourism activities where the tourism products and services are generated to be consumed by people in large numbers or masses. Thus mass tourism involves increased or mass production of tourism products and services. Moreover mass tourism also features the growth of demand and consumption of consumer goods and accessories associated with the tourism venture. It is observed that people moving in tourist places featuring sea focus on the procurement of surf boards while skiing accessories are increasingly demanded by people moving over to snow capped hills and mountains. Other examples of mass tourism reflects on theme parks like the Disney theme park that attracts considerable number of tourists and also tourism packages designed by touring companies like Thomas and Cook inviting increased number of tourists. Similarly, the designing of tourism packages featuring facilities like touring, dining and other entertainment activities also contribute in attracting con siderable number of people to tourism sites featuring architectures and beaches(Baldacchino, 2016). Special Interest Tourism or SIT is featured by the existence of tourists that share common interests in visiting specific places and tourist destinations. The common liking reflected by the tourists contributes in attributing their choices for specific tourism destinations. Activities concerning SIT are essentially designed based on the travel interests and motivation of the tourist groups rather than being based on income, age and other social and demographic categories. Nature tourism can be effectively identified as a potential example of SIT. The SIT can be effectively categorised as health tourism, passive tourism activities associated with sports, active tourism activities like adventure based tourism, creative tourism associated with cultural performances like dance, music and art, heritage and also luxury or relaxing tourism(Richins Hull, 2016). Demand for Tourism The demand for different tourist sites and venues are increasingly constituted by a host of different functions like the age, income, educational and marital status of the people interested or focusing to tour to specific tourism destinations. Further, the prices of the different tour packages developed by the tour and travel companies also affect and determine the travelling and touring demand of the people to specific tourism destinations. The demand for honeymoon sites and packages both along domestic and international tourism are potentially influenced by the marital status and situation of the masses. Similarly, educational tours pertaining to travelling to historical and heritage sites are influenced by nature of the educational status of the people. Changes in the exchange rates between two economies also tend to influence the tourism demand of the people. The exchange rates associated with tourism destinations are also influenced by the inflation rates concerning the tourism destinations or economies. Growth in the level of inflation along with unfavourable exchange rates dampens the interests of the tourists. Existence of substitute tourist destinations and tourism packages also influence the demand of tourists moving over to specific regions(Song Witt, 2012). Push/Pull Factors Different types of push and pull factors are observed to influence the interests of tourists visiting specific tourist destinations. Different types of push factors like escaping from the routine or mundane work and social environments, exploration of different regions and their own adventurous behaviours, desire to earn relaxation and luxurious lifestyle for specific periods, interest for enhancing social and kinship interactions and relations are observed to influence the mindset of the people for touring over to specific regions. The other pull factors like novelty of tourist regions and also the educational qualifications of the tourists are also observed to potentially influence the tourist mindset. Push and pull factors in a combined form together contribute in taking effective decisions regarding the restoration of tourism and ecological environments. The push factors are thus observed to be the different types of psychological factors that potentially motivate and influence t he consumers for generating visits to different tourist regions. Pull factors on the other hand reflect on the essential features and determinants of specific tourism destinations that potentially attract tourists to such regions. Thus, students pursuing research in architectural, archaeological and historical studies are thus observed to be pulled to tourism destinations of heritage and historical interests(Tribe, 2009). Tourist Motivation and Typologies Tourist typologies based on motivational aspects of tourist contribute in categorising tourists. The five different tourist categories or typologies are identified as follows. Budget travellers are identified to be tourists that are economically oriented in nature. Adventure travellers are observed to be tourists that focus on touring over to adventurous regions consisting of hills, forests and beaches encouraging activities like trekking and surfing. The adventure travellers however are observed to reflect reduced interests for enjoying leisure tourism involving the use of spas and other relaxing centres(CHEN et al., 2014). Homebodies are categorised as tourists that desire for enjoying relaxing travel. These tourist categories do not desire in getting travel related information and also are not adventurous in nature. Vacationers are categorised as tourists that focus on planning of tourism activities and focus on booking of holidays depending on their vacation periods. Finally, the moderates are classified as tourists that have an increased interest for travelling over to different regions but do not have inclinations for participating in activities concerning sports tourism and also in weekend trips to short destinations(Lubbe, 2003). Factors Influencing Tourist Motivation A set of factors underlined below tend to influence the decision making activities of the tourists visiting both domestic and international regions. Age of the Tourists Age constitutes to be important determinant that governs the decision making activities of the people concerning touring. Survey conducted on the tourist population in United Kingdom reflects that people aged between 16 to 24 years and also those beyond 65 years are more inclined in availing holiday packages designed by tour operators. People belonging to the above age categories however fail to meet their tourism needs on a frequent basis owing to income constraints. The UK population relating to the age group 35 to 54 reflect potential interests in overseas or international tourism while the retired population focus more on enjoying the benefits of domestic tourism. The younger population in the region is largely advertised for promotion of both adventurous and leisure tourism on account of their energy and also income power(Song Witt, 2012). Family Influences In terms of family influences, the women population in the UK households are observed to act as information seekers and analysers regarding selection of tourism venues. However, the decision regarding length of stay, price packages, travelling decisions and also accommodation facilities are undertaken in a joint fashion in heterosexual households. The existence of children in the households also requires the parents to make tourism plans depending on school or college holidays where the duration of the holidays are also planned based on the availability of the children(Page, 2014). Gender Gender groupings among men, women and also the existence of transgender population in societies potentially influence the touring decisions of the different communities. The men are observed to be potentially interested in adventure tourism involving trekking, mountain climbing, paragliding, skiing and other types of sporting events. Further, the male population is also interested in availing sex tourism. The women tourists focus on touring over to spiritual and religious places while also on availing the benefits of leisure tourism(Page Connell, 2006). Agents and Elements Needed for Development of Tourist Attractions The elements that are needed to be incorporated for designing and development of effective tourism attractions and resorts are identified in terms of 6As of tourism. The first A signifies the incorporation of needed attractions like designing resorts involving scenic attractions like hills, forests and beaches or in the form of development of artificial attractions like that of designing theme and amusement parks for entertaining guests and visitors through generation of cultural nights and festivals. The second A denotes the incorporation of transportation infrastructures for generation of accessibility to the resorts. The tour or resort company thus not only requires in making the tourists avail adequate transportation facilities but also in generation of effective routes that would help in servicing the tourists by fetching them from different busy terminals like airports and railway stations(Hampton, 2013). The third A increasingly focus on the generation of effective amenities b ased on providing the right quality and standard of accommodation facilities along with provision of effective and quality food and leisure facilities for entertaining the people. Further, the fourth A reflect on the different types of tour product and service packages that are designed by other intermediary firms linked with the tourism company for generation of tour services in a customised fashion. The fifth A relate to the different activities that are designed in the tourist resorts for helping in the attraction of potential tourists. The activities in the tourist resorts can be made increasingly attractive based on the incorporation of support from different event management firms. The final A relates to the development of network of the tourist resort with other ancillary firms pertaining to different sectors like banks, hospitals, insurance and postal services. The development of networks of the tourist resort with other ancillary services provided by government, semi-govern ment and private partners would help the tourists enjoy their tours in a holistic fashion(Buhalis Amaranggana, 2014). Key Organisations in UK Travel and Tourism Industry The investigation of the travel and tourism sector based in United Kingdom reveals that the sector is increasingly constituted by firms operating in the private, public and voluntary sector. Private Sector Firms Investigations carried out in the UK Tourism and Travel Industry reflect that majority of the firms operating in the stated sector in the region belong to the private category. The private sector tour and travelling firms increasingly focus on incurring increased revenues and profits while also in generating increased returns to the shareholders. Travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom contribute in generating increased employment in the region such that it contributes in generating 10 percent of the total employment in the economy. Different types of private tour and travel companies operating in United Kingdom are like Thomas Cook, Holiday Inn, British Airways, London Eye, Alton Towers and Virgin Trains. Public Sector Firms The public sector firms operating in the travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom are observed to be effectively governed by the local, regional and national governments. The public sector tourism and travel organisations increasingly focus on educating, informing and providing quality touring and travelling services to tourists at reduced cost. The government authority DCMS or the Department of Culture, Media and Sport potentially operates in managing and governing the operations of the government travel and tour firms operating in the region. Some effective examples of travel and tour firms operating along the tourism supply chain in United Kingdom are like the museums, tourism and travel information centres, national gallery and also the different regional tourism development organisations(Smith Stewart, 2014). Voluntary Sector Firms The voluntary sector firms operating in the travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom are essentially constituted by charity and not-for-profit organisations and also other types of trusts. The funding of the voluntary sector firms are made based on the use of entrance fees, donations generated by the internal members and those collected from the external society and also a host of fundraising events generated in the region. The voluntary sector firms mainly focus on promoting and protecting the tourism and heritage resources and sites in the region. The operation of the voluntary sector firms operating in the travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom are carried out by staffs, managers and other volunteers. Examples of voluntary firms in the travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom are the national trust of United Kingdom, Friends of Williamsons, The Sealed Knot and also Tourism Concern(Visit Britain, n.d.). Conclusions The analysis carried out in the report effectively reflects on the current developments brought about in the global tourism and travel sector. It also analyses the characteristics of two main types or categories of tourism like mass and specific interest tourism in an empirical fashion and also through the generation of effective examples for generation of needed clarity. Further, the report also reflects on the different factors or reasons that attract potential tourists to the regions. The analysis is conducted to understand the demand factors and also other factors that increasingly motivate the tourists in venturing to different regions. The report also focuses on the different elements that need to be effectively incorporated for designing of tourist attractions and resorts. Finally, the paper also reflects on private, public and voluntary firms operating in the travel and tourism sector of United Kingdom with relevant examples. References Baldacchino, G., 2016. Archipelago Tourism: Policies and Practices. New York : Routledge. Buhalis, D. Amaranggana, A., 2014. Smart Tourism Destinations. Information and Communication Technologies, pp.553-64. CHEN, G., BAO, J. HUANG, S.(., 2014. Segmenting Chinese Backpackers by Travel Motivations. International Journal of Tourism Research, 16, pp.355-67. Chopra, B., 2015. Five global trends for travel tourism industry in 2015. [Online] Available at: https://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2015-01-14/news/58066349_1_travel-space-hoteltonight-technology [Accessed 29 July 2016]. Hampton, M.P., 2013. Backpacker Tourism and Economic Development: Perspectives from the Less Developed World. New York : Routledge. Lubbe, B.A., 2003. Tourism Management in Southern Africa. South Africa: Pearson South Africa. Page, S.J., 2014. Tourism Management. New York : Routledge. Page, S. Connell, J., 2006. Tourism: A Modern Synthesis. United Kingdom : Cengage Learning EMEA. Private Tours UK, 2016. Private Tours Sightseeing from and in LONDON. [Online] Available at: https://www.privatetoursuk.com/ [Accessed 29 July 2016]. Richins, H. Hull, J., 2016. Mountain Tourism: Experiences, Communities, Environments and Sustainable Futures. United Kingdom: CABI. Smith, J.D. Stewart, S., 2014. Cambridge International AS and A Level Travel and Tourism. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Song, .H. Witt, S.F., 2012. Tourism Demand Modelling and Forecasting. New York : Routledge. Tribe, J., 2009. Philosophical Issues in Tourism. United States : Channel View Publications. UNWTO, 2015. Why tourism? [Online] Available at: https://www2.unwto.org/content/why-tourism [Accessed 29 July 2016]. Visit Britain, n.d. Structure of tourism in Britain. [Online] Available at: https://www.visitbritain.org/structure-tourism-britain [Accessed 29 July 2016].