Saturday, May 23, 2020
Education is the one of the most influential parts of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. A positive education can set a child up for a lifetime of success, adversely, a negative education can set a child up for a lifetime of failures. Knowing how crucial education is, one must ask themselves: Is America doing all that it can to provide a stable education system for every child? Could America be doing more to provide a stable future for each child, and therefore the United States as a whole? Other countries are doing more. Countries in and around Europe and Asia are using a teaching method known as the European style. This style of education is wielding higher quality results for every person involved. To guarantee a successful future for everyone, and the United States as a whole, the American school system needs a revision. For fifty years the United States has seen achievement levels that have stayed the same or went up slightly. If one compares the education system to itself, it seem s that the American school system is in an acceptable place, therefore why change? European countries on the other hand have seen significant advancement over the last fifty years. Poland has gone from only ten percent of high school students graduating to now outperforming the United States. South Korea has raised its standard of living from that equal to Afghanistan, up to a thriving modern economy (Kopp). Thirty-five years ago Finland was one of the worst countries educationally. Today theyShow MoreRelatedHow At Risk Students Make It For College940 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStudents Make It to College, published in the Hispanic Times Magazine, the un-named author is explaining how there are several factors that can have a positive influence on any student, and most importantly, on an at risk students, to make the decision about going to a four-year college. The author is showing us the most important influencing factors such as family and peers. The author also tells us what an at risk-student is. The author is also telling us that within the key factors, there are some underliningRead MoreJohn Locke s Views On Education879 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestheories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. During his services at Shaftesbury, John Locke had been writing. He published all of his most significant works within six years of following his return to England. LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingÃ¢â¬ outlined a theory of human knowledge, identity and selfhood. In his Ã¢â¬Å"Thoughts Concerning EducationÃ¢â¬ , Locke argued for a broadened syllabus and better treatmentRead MoreExternalizing Behaviors Among Children, Play Therapy, And Parental Involvement1214 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa person might act upon, such as aggression, impulsivity, property or personal destruction, and verbal insults (Meany-Walen, Kottman, Bullis, and Dillman Taylor, 2015). This type of behavior may typically lead to more significant underlying problem(s) in the future. According to Meany-Walen et al., (2015) children that display externalizing behaviors such as aggression, and who do not receive the proper intervention have a higher risk of experiencing problems throughout their lives. AdditionallyRead MoreGender Socialization And Gender Roles1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Mirna Abed English 120 Professor Lessor 5/14/2016 Gender role in socialization Gender socialization and gender roles have always existed in society. Gender roles are playing major part in our way of living. As we grow, we learn how to behave and respect from those surrounding us as well as children learn at a young age what it means to be a boy or a girl in our society . there are certain roles placed on boys and girls in accordance with their gender. These gender roles are set onRead MoreLibraries Features Within Childhood And Family Life1465 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthese skills.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Rankin and Brock, 2015, p1). Rankin and Brock cite that Ã¢â¬ËStart with the ChildÃ¢â¬â¢ (CILIP, 2002) recognised that reading is a central part of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Reading inspires their imagination, this enables them to grow emotionally, and develop their understanding of the world and where they stand in the local and global community. Libraries can be influential in the early stages of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life because they bring books and children together, they provide a space where childrenRead MoreOprah Winfrey s Influence On Law Enforcement And Schools Across The Country Essay1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Real integrity is doing the right thing, knowing that nobody s going to know whether you did it or not.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Oprah Winfrey. Being born into an abusive family to a teen mother may hold some people from becoming successful, but not Oprah Winfrey. Winfrey uses her rocky past to motivate her to help others, and provide victims of sexual abuse with a safe haven. Winfrey has made an impact on America. The former pageant queen and talk show host helped establish the National Sex Offender Registry whichRead MoreParental Involvement : Young And Helpless Essay979 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesone of the most influential questions a parent can ask their child. This question has haunted millions of children every year hoping to slide one over on their parents in order to get that extra half hour outside before super. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a well researched and proven fact that parental involvement has a large impact on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude not only towards school, but learning all together. This positive influence simply doesn t stop at a parent attending a quarterly PTA meeting, or being part of school eventsRead MoreWomen in Psychology Essay1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWomen in Psychology Paper PSY/310 It feels as though most of the time when thinking about psychology and the great contributions that have been made to it, that most of them have been from men, but along the way there have been several influential women that have contributed to the field of psychology as well. Just like men, there were several women who were pioneers, theorists, and counselors; many of these women have contributed toRead MoreB. Du Bois1593 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshis writings have been very influential, from the time they were released and still to this day. As a speaker, Du Bois was often outspoken and made it a point to be clear where he stood on an issue. Du Bois the teacher was a very intelligent man who was growing into his views, and this time in his life would help shape his future works. The field where these works would come into play the biggest was as an author. Du Bois would go on to write several highly influential books, essays, magazines andRead MoreMoral Values1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pag esimportant, unimportant, right, wrong, good and bad. When we are confronted by choices, options, or moral dilemmas, the decisions we make will indicate what values we hold. Human values give worthiness and respect to life. The foundation of human values are based on Ã · Dignity of human life Ã · Respect and consideration for the other Ã · The importance of integrity and service Ã · An attitude of non-violence Ã · The individual and collective quest for peace and happiness. In other words, values are a kind of
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Introduction Alcohol and drug consumptions are the biggest issues that the country has. In the 2013 National survey on drug use and health, more than 70% of the people are either full-time or part-time employee. Further, 60% of the drug produced worldwide are consumed by the employee in the USA. The money spent on health care, accidental injuries, productivity loss is very high. The most of the adults with alcohol and substance abuses are the full-time employee. Employees with substance dependency and alcohol addiction increase the medical expenses related to injuries and poor health. The rate of absenteeism is greater than non-substance abuse and non-alcohol employees. The productivity and quality of the work are highly affected. The four major areas of concern in the workplace is attendance, productivity, safety and employee relationship (Elliott Shelley, 2006). Employees consuming alcohol and substance abuses are mostly full-time employee of all levels of management. Alcohol and substance abuse employees cause low productivity, increases health care expenses, work injuries, absenteeism and tardiness, and waste supplies and material due to poor decision-making (Garcia, 1996; Levy Merrick, Volpe-Vartanian et al., 2007). An employee who is addicted to the alcohol and substance abuse does the job to meet the minimum requirement, in order, to sustain their job and to get their paycheck. But from the organizational point of view, the overall productivity is highlyShow MoreRelatedPregnancy: the Effects of Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Fetal Development4521 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesPregnancy: The Effects of Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Fetal Development Natalie Fontanella Liberty University Online Abstract This paper examined the effects of alcohol and substance abuse on fetal development in expecting mothers. The critical periods of fetal development during pregnancy are reviewed and discussed in order to determine the effects alcohol and substance can cause during certain stages. In order to gain a more efficient understanding of the effects different substances can haveRead MorePersuasive Essay On Drug Abuse1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesToday, drug abuse has become a controversial subject where various individuals have different views. Substance abuse is a substantial dilemma among people and easily spread in schools, work environments, and even in homes. Drug abuse starts in utterly reasons, but can begin in adolescence with peer pressure or friends using them, family environment that has violent, physical, or emotional abuse, and inherited genetics with mental health conditions as depression, anxiety, or ADHD (National InstituteRead MoreHow Substance Abuse Negatively Affects The Ba by While During1328 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHow substance abuse negatively affects the baby while during a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s pregnancy. Many women across the world cause complications to their unborn child when they choose to abuse substance. There are many types of substance abuse such as alcohol, tobacco, and drug abuse. Most likely when women choose to engage in these types of activities it causes harm to the child and birth defects. Long term and short term deformities and conditions are present in the child. Other factors play a part into whyRead MoreThe Effects Of Substance Abuse On Children1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesare 50% more likely to abuse substances (Promises Treatment Center). Bullying is the act of physical or verbal tormenting over a set amount of time, usually targeted at one person or a group of people. Bullying is an international issue that ruins the victim s emotional well-being. Those who are victims of bullying can turn to drugs or other substances as a form of coping; people who bully can be shown to have abusive tendencies with these substances as well. Substance abuse is defined as being dep endentRead MoreThe Psychological Effects Of Adolescent Substance Abuse1469 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAdolescent substance abuse is one of the largest issues faced by our society today. According to Teenrehab.com, nearly 50% of all high school seniors have abused some form of illicit substance and according to National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism nearly 70% of 18 year olds have at the least tried alcohol. Many more adolescents are trying, and getting addicted to, drugs every year. In my opinion this is one of the most critical issues that we have to address as a society. Summary Response:Read MoreAlcohol Abuse and Alcohol Anonimus Essay708 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAlcohol Abuse is part of disorder that affects many people throughout the world. Many are aware of the issues the disorder can bring not just on the victim, but also to the people that surround the person with the psychological problem. There are different areas that can be discussed in regards to alcoholism. According to Coon Mitterer (2013), a substance abuse disorder is when there is an abuse or dependence on a psychoactive drug. Alcohol is a substance that can become abusive and bring negativeRead MoreMany Women Across The World Cause Complications To Their1657 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesacross the world cause complications to their unborn child when they choose to abuse substance. There are many types of substance abuse such as alcohol, tobacco, and drug abuse. Most likely when women choose to engage in these types of activities it causes harm to the child and birth defects. Long term and sho rt term deformities and conditions are present in the child. Other factors play a part into why women abuse, substance such as stress, depression, and mental issues. More treatment and pre-educationRead MoreThe Abuse Of Drugs And Alcohol1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe abuse of drugs and alcohol has been a known issue over past decades. The media paints the picture that alcohol and drug use is fun and the only way to have a good time. While alcohol in moderation is fine, many people find themselves going over board and abusing it. Elicit drugs like cocaine and heroin are highly addictive and have several adverse effects. People find themselves depressed and anxious so they ultimately try to use these drugs to mask the pain instead of getting help for theirRead MoreThe Effects Of Drugs On The Human Body1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesit became a nation. The abuse of substances has become more and more common on this society, that now thinking about legalizing one of its illicit drugs is a m ain political topic. Even though the United States has become a war on drugs country, many people in its society are still being affected. Out of all the substances that are being abuse in this country, there are three that outstand the rest. The three substances that are being abuse the most in our society are alcohol, marijuana, and methamphetamineRead MoreSubstance Abuse Within Correctional Setting978 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSubstance Abuse in Correctional Setting Assessment psychology has examined individuals who are criminal offenders who were evaluated to determine their personalities to which they have a long history with. Approximately well over a century ago, MÃ ¼nsterberg, 1908, Vaccaro Hogan, 2004 who are all psychologists has managed a improved study on criminal offenders that will allow us all to have an ambiguous understanding of how the process of his research in reference to the criminal
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Read the following discussion and consider the views of both the teacher and her students. Write a speech for the school Science Club. In your speech ; describe some of the ways children use technology ; precautions children could take for health and safety ; views of older generations towards technology ; give your own views Base your speech on the ideas found in the discussion and be careful to use your own words. We will write a custom essay sample on Speech Writing or any similar topic only for you Order Now You should write between lo and 2 sides, allowing for the size of your handwriting. Up to ten marks are available for the content of your answer and up to fifteen marks for the quality Of your writing. After a Communication Studies lesson, the teacher, Mrs. Trapdoor, and three students discuss modern technology. Mrs. Trapdoor: That lesson makes me more worried than ever about your physical well being. Surely itÃ¢â¬â¢s not a good thing that you use modern technology to escape from reality so often? Brat: So, what do you do to escape from the stresses of your job? No doubt you Ã¢â¬Ëup the volumeÃ¢â¬â¢ on your classical music in the car or watch the latest soap opera on television. Either way, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not that different. Mrs. Trapdoor: Okay, we all need to switch off now and then, but the kids see are permanently hooked up to some gadget that Stops them communicating with others. My son is constantly in his own bubble; if heÃ¢â¬â¢s not on the phone to a friend then heÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËshufflingÃ¢â¬â¢ and focused on his music player, and donÃ¢â¬â¢t get me started on these new games and films he watches on a ridiculously small screen. Catkin: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the latest technology. It solves the problem of what film you all want to watch on television. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s just Ã¢â¬Ëzoning outÃ¢â¬â¢; its what we all do. In your day you would have gone to your room. Well, now we can block out situations hat are stressful. Mrs. Trapdoor: What? Like family life? You see thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what worries me. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s there in the room with us, but heÃ¢â¬â¢s not really there. Ail: Well, it depends on how high the volume is! I can easily listen to my music as well as tune in to whatÃ¢â¬â¢s being said around me. If my mother starts an argument, then I just turn the volume up to the maximum! Brat: ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s how I like to listen to my music nanny. Loud. Mrs. Trapdoor: You see that also concerns me. New studies prove it is dangerous to listen to really loud music as it can cause hearing loss.  Catkin: Well, what about you and your laptop? YouÃ¢â¬â¢re always hunched over it typing, risking injury to your back and your hands. You see, you condemn our use of technology, but you forget how much people older than us rely on it. Plus, if anything goes wrong with your new devices, you usually ask us to fix it. Mrs. Trapdoor: Okay, I know you belong to the technological society, but it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop me worrying about your health. My laptop isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a miniscule gadget that requires me to risk my eyesight to see the screen. The keys on your game players are so small that you could suffer from repetitive strain injury or even arthritis in the future. Catkin: get your point. However, we know that we should have breaks when our eyes get tired or our fingers ache. Mrs. Trapdoor: What about the dangers of walking around or cycling whilst the latest rap song is blaring in your ears? YouÃ¢â¬â¢re oblivious to the traffic around you and you risk being in an accident. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, someone could attack you as you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be aware of their presence. Ail: It is stupid to lock yourself up in your own world in a busy city, but is it very different from adult motorists talking on their mobiles and causing accidents? Mrs. Trapdoor: But itÃ¢â¬â¢s in cities where I see most teenagers not interacting with hats going on around them, and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t even mutter please or thank you to others who serve them. Ail: You canÃ¢â¬â¢t blame these devices for bad manners. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t tell me that adults arenÃ¢â¬â¢t tempted to block out the noise and stress of public transport! I saw an old guy with headphones on in the subway, blissfully unaware of his surroundings. Mrs. Trapdoor: Everyone over thirty looks old to you lot! My point is still relevant. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not just concerned about noise. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve even heard of discos where teenagers listen and dance to their own choice of music on their own headphones. Catkin: Hey, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a good idea! The world is changing. By the way, is that your cell phone ringing? A very warm welcome to one and all in the Science Club ! Does any one here know that technology could be dated back to the pre historic era? Well, before we get into that, lets define technology. As we all know , our lives revolve around technological advancements right from basic appliances like a fan or air conditioner to your Phone. Engineers all over the world strive to improve the quality of life, by inventing user friendly devices by which, life becomes comfortable. Who could say Ã¢â¬ËNOÃ¢â¬â¢ to ease and luxury in the fast advancing world Nicola Tests, the father of modern technology, as ridiculed by scientists then for inventing very important tools like the radio, Cray the AC and DC motor. Some did not accept his theory, but least did they imagine, so many years later a life without these modern appliances. Technology should be encouraged when it comes to enriching a personÃ¢â¬â¢s being. The very discovery of the Ã¢â¬ËflintÃ¢â¬â¢ stone is considered a technological advancement without which the discovery of fire would have been next to impossible. As the saying goes Ã¢â¬ËNecessity is the mother of inventionÃ¢â¬â¢, the thirst and desire to learn and aspire is what drove cave man to improve his lifestyle. If only he did not do so, we would all remain in darkness till date. Since then, discoveries big or small have had a positive impact on the outlook of people and the way they choose to lead life. Not only has technology impacted the world towards fun and enjoyment, but also helped him have a larger life span , thanks to the advancements in the field Of healthcare. Technology alone has helped diagnose and treat life threatening diseases that could possibly wipe out our very existence on this planet. Hence, encouraging such endeavourers is an important step towards a healthy life. The past decade has seen profound increase in the use of entertainment technology by children, some as young as 1 year of age. It is hard to find kids who would prefer playing basket ball in the open to a SSP indoors. Doctors world wide believe , that Ã¢â¬ËattachmentÃ¢â¬â¢ to technology has Ã¢â¬ËdetachedÃ¢â¬â¢ children from humanity as they would interact better with a Graphical User Interface than a fellow human being. Brain development research suggests that the frontal cortex of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s brain is at risk where he looses impulse control and becomes more violent. Apart from this, the Electromagnetic radiations that are emitted from these gadgets are remarry causes of sensory and motor disorders in children. Being a couch potato , with a TV remote in one hand and a snack in the other is one such thing you canÃ¢â¬â¢t miss in a household with kids. Unhealthy snacking and lack of physical exercise and fresh air causes obesity which endanger their lifespan. However, recent advancements in the field of modern gadgets does cause concern in the minds of the previous generation. The pods and loud music , generally used to De-stress, by teenagers causes serious hearing disorders. Decades ago, fun was about meeting up with friends and family over a social adhering, and now that children prefer chatting online to meeting up, parents do get a little worried. The worry ends up in reflecting badly on technological improvements. Besides, they overlook the fact that even they require gadgets to complete their daily tasks even as simple as sending an email and turn to youngsters to certain stuff they canÃ¢â¬â¢t handle. Overall, rating technological advancements as a bane would be unfair to the present generation has it has so many positives to it. To wrap up my speech, would like to say a few words on how a rational use of technology could improve the outlook of children. Firstly, to the parents who think advancements would prove to be a disadvantage to their children, I suggest they ensure the exposure is under their supervision and subtly handled. Secondly, technology is a limitless field of science where there is so much to learn and gather that, exposing our kids to it, would bring positive results as they would learn so much more. How to cite Speech Writing, Papers Speech Writing Free Essays string(65) " expressing and arguing a point of view clearly and effectively\." INTRODUCTION: ASSESSMENT OF SPEAKING AND LISTENING SKILLS IN ENGLISH (ASL) CCE (Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation) the flagship project of CBSE has clearly outlined the significance of speaking and listening skills as part of co-scholastic areas of achievement by every learner and also stresses the clear integration of evaluation of speaking and listening skills as a part of the curriculum transaction. The formative assessment of these two skills along with other skills have been formally provisioned under CCE . But in the absence of Summative Assessment, we have not positioned the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s proficiency in Speaking and Listening thereby leading to a wash back effect of very little or no importance given to Speaking and Listening Skills in many classrooms . We will write a custom essay sample on Speech Writing or any similar topic only for you Order Now As a result a large population of students passes out of schools with inadequate competence in expressive communication skills. As good communication skills raise the self esteem of a student, CBSE essentially desires that the students acquire proficiency in it by the time they leave the portals of the school. In the present day global markets, speaking and listening are considered to be the essential skills of real life. Since CBSE has the onerous responsibility of assessing scholastic and co-scholastic achievement levels of students in over 12000 schools affiliated to it , it has been felt for a long time that CBSE must focus on assessing speaking and listening skills for qualification as Summative Evaluation as much for Formative Assessment . Considering this, CBSE proposes to give weightage in Formative and Summative assessments in ASL (Assessment of Speaking and Listening Skills). This weightage is clearly specified in the 2014 curriculum document uploaded in the CBSE Academic website. Guidelines for teachers to assess Speaking and Listening Skills in the term-end examination: LISTENING The Listening Comprehension section tests the candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to listen for basic interpersonal, instructional and academic purposes. A number of sub-skills need to be developed in the every day classroom transaction. Given below are some of the sub-skills of listening which need to be assessed in the formative and summative assessments: i. i. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Listening for specific information Listening for general understanding Predictive listening Inferential listening Listening for pleasure Intensive listening Evaluative listening 1|Page Role of Assessor: An assessor is a person who is assigned the job of assessing a candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in any of the skills that is to be assessed. For the purpose of the Summative Assessment, an assessor will be a t eacher who would also be an examiner or an interlocutor who will conduct the examination and do the assessment if skills. It is extremely important to keep in mind the factors listed below as they can significantly influence the expected outcome of the Listening Test. Therefore, due care and attention must be given to each of the following: ? ? ? ? ? ? Size of the room Seating arrangements Acoustics of the room Equipment used Quality of the recording of the Listening Input Quality of the oral rendering of the Listening Input (in case it is to be read aloud by the Examiner), in terms of volume, clarity, enunciation, intonation, pace etc Test Administration: For the Assessor (Teacher) 1 2 3 4 5 6. Select the time and date of the assessment. Plan the seating arrangements in advance. Decide exactly as to how much time is to be reserved for instructions or any possible interaction regarding clarifications etc and for the actual test. Make the announcement giving General Instructions directed to the Candidate before the recording is played/before the reading of the text. Adhere strictly to the time specified for each of the three phases of the Test (Pre-listening, While Listening and Post-Listening) The general instruction given below should be followed while conducting the test. The Listening Test The Listening test comprises of a variety of task. These tasks are graded according to the length of the task and the difficulty level. Schools may download the sample tasks and reorganize them in two parts transcripts and the marking scheme for the interlocutor or the assessor and the worksheets for the students on which student swill write answers. General Instructions for Students You are not allowed to ask questions or interrupt the Assessor at any point. 1 2 3 You are being tested on your Listening Skills. You will hear a set of recordings of the Listening Input or listen to a reading of the Listening Input. Each of the recording will be played twice. In case there is an oral rendering of the Listening Input, it shall take place twice. 2|Page 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 You are required to answer a set of questions based on each of the Listening Inputs. The test consists of 4/sections. You are required to attempt all 4 sections of the test. Familiarize yourself with the questions on the Worksheet. It will help you to answer them later on. After you have listened to the input, you will be given specified minutes to answer the questions on your worksheet You may answer the questions on your Worksheet while listening. Do not interact/comment until you have moved out of the Examination Room Assessment of Listening The marking key is prepared before the test is administered. It will take about a period of 30-35 minutes to conduct a listening test. At the end of the test, the answer scripts should be collected and marked. It is objectives type of marking. Hence, it is suggested that scripts may be marked on the same day. SPEAKING Speaking skill has acquired a very important place in the communication skills. Like listening skills Ã¢â¬â a number of subskills of speaking need to be consciously developed amongst students. Some of the sub-skills are given below which can be assessed. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. speaking intelligibly using appropriate word stress, sentence stress and intonation patterns. narrating incidents and events, real or imaginary in a logical sequence. presenting oral reports or summaries; making announcements clearly and confidently. expressing and arguing a point of view clearly and effectively. You read "Speech Writing" in category "Papers" taking active part in group discussions, showing ability to express agreement or disagreement, summarising ideas, eliciting the views of others, and presenting own ideas. expressing and responding to personal feelings, opinions and attitudes. articipating in spontaneous spoken discourse in familiar social situations. General Instructions 1 The total administration time for the speaking test is approximately 10-12 minutes 2 3 4 The speaking test will be conducted for two students at a time. There will be a single teacher to function as the Interloc utor and Assessor. The Interlocutor/ Assessor should be a qualified English Teacher The Speaking Test: Role of Assessor: 1. The (Assessor) should ensure that the room is quiet and has good acoustics. 3|Page 2. The tone, manner and body language of the Interlocutor should be relaxed, encouraging and pleasant. Care should be taken to make the candidates feel at ease. 3. Students must not be discouraged from making a fresh start in case they are unable to do so at the first attempt. 4. The Assessor needs to be flexible, sympatric and reassuring in her/his demeanour. 5. The Assessor should also be a proficient user of the language in order to conduct the speaking test successfully. For e. g . the interlocutor should be skilled in Elicitation techniques. For e. g. Yes/No questions should generally be avoided. 6. Alternatively questions such asÃ¢â¬ ¦ Explain how/WhyÃ¢â¬ ¦ Tell me what you think ofÃ¢â¬ ¦. 7. Ideally, the Assessor should award marks after the candidates have left the Examination Room. If necessary, notes can be made discreetly to be later in the scoring so that it does not make the candidates unduly tense and self-conscious. The Speaking test is divided into three sections as given below: I General Introduction The Interlocutor converses with the two candidates. Simple warm up questions based on the candidatesÃ¢â¬â¢ names, place of residence, leisure preferences etc are asked. II Mini Presentation In this section the Interlocutor gives each candidate the choice to pick up a Role Card or a Cue Card with a topic written on it. The candidates are given 1 minute to prepare. The assessor should be ready with sheets of paper and pencil. Candidates may organize their thoughts and ideas. Prior to the day of the speaking test, as an assistance to students to prepare for the presentations, a teacher can give a choice of 20 to 30 topics in class to students so that they can prepare the topics and organise their ideas on each topic . Similar topics can be given in the formal testing . Please note that candidates are not allowed to write full length answers. They may jot down points only in the sheets given by the Interlocutor. Therefore, pencil and paper should be provided on the table. Students are not allowed to carry pen, paper or mobile in the examination room. After one minute, each student will be given 2 minutes each to present his/her ideas. In case, a student is unable to speak during /for the allotted time, the (Assessor) may ask some rounding off questions. III Pair Interaction The third section of the test is for 3 minutes. Both candidates are given a verbal or visual stimulus and asked to respond to it Both the candidates are given a total of 3 minutes to interact. Both of them will talk together. Closing 4|Page The closing is for 1 minute duration only. In case a student has not been able to speak or has been unable to speak owing to nervousness, the dominance of the second candidate or any other factor, then, the (interlocutor) may use the 1 minute to give a fresh opportunity to that student. Note: In the Summative II assessment it has been proposed to record the candidatesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance in the MP 3 players/ recorders, so as to validate and make the test reliable and fair. Assessment of Speaking Assessors should familiarise themselves with the assessment scale of speaking. While the students are giving their presentation, assessors may refer to descriptors. It is they may share these indicators with the students while formative assessment tasks are given. As the test will be conducted for two students at a time, it is advised that two to three teachers sit in separate rooms to conduct the assessment of students of one section at a time. Hence 48 students can be assessed simultaneously within one and half hours, in three batches of 16 students each. Assessors are advised to pay due attention to and familiarize themselves with the design of the test items. The sample test items are given here as Annexures here. Similar test items can be framed according to the need and level of students. The descriptors are given below for reference: Interaction ? 5. Can initiate logically develop simple conversation on familiar topics Can take turns appropriately ? 4. Interaction is adequately initiated and developed Can take turn but needs little prompting ? 3. Develops interactions adequately makes however minimal effort to initiate conversation Needs constant prompting to take turns ? 2. Contributions are often unrelated to those of the other speaker ? 1. Contributions are mainly unrelated to those of other speaker Shows hardly any initiative in the development of conversation Very limited interaction 1 Insufficient accuracy in pronunciation; many grammatically errors Communicatio n is severely affected ? ? ? ? ? Generally passive in the development of conversation ? Pronunciation ? Can pronounce correctly articulate clearly ? 4 Mostly ? correct pronunciation clear articulation Can be clearly understood ? most of the time; very few phonological errors ? Is always comprehensibl e; uses appropriate intonation ? 3 Largely correct ? pronunciation clear articulation except occasional ? errors Some expressions cause stress without compromising with understanding of spoken discourse. ? 2 Frequently unintelligible articulations Frequent phonol ogical errors Major communication problems ? ? 5|Page Fluency Coherence 5 ? Speaks fluently almost with no repetition minimal hesitation ? Develops topic fully coherently ? 4 Speaks without noticeable effort, with a little repetition Demonstrates hesitation to find words or use correct grammatical structures and/or self correction Topics not fully developed to merit Can express with some flexibility and appropriacy on most of the topics Demonstrates ability to use complex forms and sentence structures most of the time; expresses with adequate vocabulary to express 3 Is willing to speak at length, however repetition is noticeable Hesitates and/or self corrects; occasionally loses coherence Topics mainly developed, but usually not logically concluded Communicates with limited flexibility and appropriacy on most of the topics Sometimes uses complex forms and sentence structures; has limited vocabulary to/describe/exp ress new points ? ? 2 Usually fluent; produces simple speech fluently, but loses coherence in complex communication Often hesitates and/or resorts to slow speech Topics partly developed; not always concluded logically Communicates with limited flexibility and appropriacy on some of the topics Complex forms and sentence structures are rare; exhibits limited vocabulary to express new ideas ? Noticeably/lon g pauses; rate of speech is slow Frequent repetition and/or self correction Links only basic sentences; breakdown of coherence evident Demonstrates almost no flexibility, and mostly struggles for appropriate words Uses very basic vocabulary to express viewpoints. ? ? ? ? ? ? Vocabulary Grammar ? Can express with some flexibility and appropriacy on a variety of topics such as family, hobbies, work, travel and current events frequently uses complex forms and sentence structures; has enough vocabulary to express himself/herself ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 6|Page ASSESSMENT Grand Total Sr. No. Name of Student Interaction Pronunciation Fluency Coherence Vocabulary and Grammar Total 20 ? can we just write (5) 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 7|Page 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Signature of the Assessor 8|Page Set Ã¢â¬â I Assessment of Listening Skills Sample Tasks Class Ã¢â¬â IX LISTENING Instructions: a) There are 10 questions in this set. Answer all the questions b) In the first part you will listen to five short extracts. As you listen to each one, answer the questions in your answer sheet. c) Before you begin to listen, read the questions quickly and get familiar with the questions. 0 Marks Part Ã¢â¬â I 1. Transcript of the police announcement: Here is an announcement by a police officer on a local city channel. This is regarding an alleged criminal who is evading the arrest. Anyone who has a clue can come forward and inform the police at 100. So, here is the descriptionThe criminal has a broad face with a thick mo ustache and a beard. Which one of the following faces are they describing? A B C D Tick the correct answer: A. B. C. D. Ans: C ____ ____ ____ ____ 2. Here is another situation, listen to it carefully. This is about the garden of Suresh. Transcript Suresh does not want people walking around in his vegetable garden that he has nurtured with great care. What sign board should he put up? 9|Page B C D Tick the correct answer A. B. C. D. Ans: C ____ ____ ____ ____ 3. Monu wants a penpal. Listen to his description of himself and fill in the columns given below: Transcript: Hi! My name is Monu and IÃ¢â¬â¢m from India. I live in Raipur near a lake. Since I have always lived here, I love water sports. I am twelve years old and love reading about plants and animals that live in the water. My box number is P. O. Box 002200. Fill in the blanks: Age Nationality . Here is the dialogue between Amit and Anand who have just completed their schooling. They are talking about some of the organizations which offer scholarships to students for different purposes. Amit is research minded and keen to take up a career in agriculture, which organization of the world would he apply to? Transcript: Listen to the dialogue and write your answer: Amit: I h eard about a Tall Clubs International that gives a scholarship of 1000/- per month to men above 6 feet and women above 5 feet 10Ã¢â¬Å" tall. InterestingÃ¢â¬ ¦.. Anand: Oh! really, my height is only 5Ã¢â¬Å" so I am not eligible. Jokes apart, I have found a society Ã¢â¬Å"CV Raman SocietyÃ¢â¬ that awards scholarships to students who have interest in Science Technology. Amit: No, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any interest in Science Technology. I want to pursue a career in agro industry. Anand: So, in that case, The National Paotato Council has a number of scholarships for students who want to work for agro industries. Amit: But does it award scholarships to undergraduates? 10 | P a g e Anand: Yes, it does. There is another one that gives 500/- per mother to graduates or undergraduates, I will have to find out the field for which it gives. Amit: Thank you, please let me know which organizations award the scholarships. Ans: Amit will opt for___________________ Transcript: 5. Joy wants to live in a village near the city. It should be a small house with low doors and ceilings. He would prefer it to be located near the sea. Which house would you recommend for him? A B C D Tick the correct answer A. B. C. D. Ans: B ____ ____ ____ ____ Part Ã¢â¬â II Instructions: a) You will now listen to the talk by Dr. Praveen Chawla on healthy foods. b) There are five questions to be answered. Read the questions quickly before you listen to the talk c) Now listen to the talk nd write your answers Ã¢â¬ËNature has given us everything that our body needs. If we take care we can avoid pills. Did you know that Mushrooms not only make tasty dishes but are a rich source of Vitamin D so essential for healthy bones? Regular consumption of mushrooms aids in better hearing power too. You must have heard of the Banana smile. Believe it or not th is fruit can actually put a smile on your face. It contains tryptophan, a protein which once digested converts into a chemical neurotransmitter called serotonin which is a very important mood regulating chemical and works like an antidepressant. 11 | P a g e Broccoli has also come to be called a disease busting vegetable. It can prevent cancer. About 2000 years ago the curative powers of Ginger for all stomach related problems were discovered. It helps digestion, cures nausea and prevents bowel tumours Cheddar cheese is a very rich source of calcium and phosphate. These strengthen bones and muscles and reduce risk of osteoporosis. Grapes, which look so much like the lobules in the lungs, are rich in proanthocyanidin a chemical which helps circulate fresh oxygen to the blood stream thereby reducing the risk of cancer and also reduce the severity of asthma. If you cut a tomato into half, you will notice that it has four chambers just like our heart. Tomatoes are a great source of lycopene, a plant chemical that reduces the risk of heart disease and several cancers. This also helps lower the unhealthy effects of LDL cholesterol. The gnarled look of a walnut, mimicking the appearance of a human brain, is perhaps the only fruit rich in Omega -3 and fatty acids tends to ward off dementia and to some extent AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. (286 words) I. Fill in the blanks with a word or phrase 6. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ are rich in Vitamin D and help in good hearing. 7. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. ood regulating chemical can make you feel happy. Ans: Banana 8. Broccoli keeps away Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ans: 1. Mushrooms 2. Banana 3. Cancer II. Tick the most appropriate answer from the choices given below: 9. The food containing lycopene which reduces heart attack risk is A. grape B. tomato C. cheese D. walnut Ans: B. tomato 10. In the talk, Dr is advising people to A. eat a balanced diet B. be happy; live healthy C. live close to nature D. eat healthy food Ans: D. eat healthy food Closing This is the end of your listening skill assessment. Check your answers. (2 minutes) Hand over your answer sheet to the assessor. 12 | P a g e Set Ã¢â¬â II Assessment of Listening Skills Sample Tasks Class Ã¢â¬â IX LISTENING Instructions: a) There are ten questions in this test. b) Answer the questions as you listen to the scripts. c) you will listen to four shorts extracts. As you listen to each one, answer the questions. I. Now listen to the news report and write correct answer 10 Marks Transcript 1. Kathmandu, May 14: Thirteen Indians were among the 15 people killed when their 20-seater aircraft slammed into a cliff in western Nepal, less than seven months after 10 Indian tourists were killed in an air accident. Six people miraculously survived the crash. A. B. C. D. Ans. B There was an explosion before the crash The crash was a consequence of collision with a cliff There have been several air crashes in the recent past Indians always die in the air crashes in and around Nepal Transcript 2. E mailing has enabled us to communicate messages to one another at a very fast pace. However, there are times when we have to post important letters and documents by surface or air mail. The postal department is very slow. Listen to the comment by an officer to his colleague. What option do you think the speaker would NOT opt for? A. B. C. D. Ans. C e-mail air mail postal department surface mail Transcript 3. City dwellers often depend on cars, buses or metros to travel from one place to another. Bicycles used to be a popular mode of travel once. I think we need to popularise them once again if we need to tackle the pollution problem. The speaker advocates the use of Ã¢â¬ ¦ Now; listen to an environment activist who is talking to one of his friends. A. cars B. buses C. bicycles D. metros Ans. C 13 | P a g e Transcript 4. Ã¢â¬ËThe Mars rover Curiosity landed on the Martian surface to begin a two-year mission, seeking evidence that the Red Planet once hosted ingredients for life,Ã¢â¬â¢ Nasa said. Mission controllers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory near Los Angeles burst into applause and cheered as they received signals relayed by a Mars orbiter confirming that the rover had survived a make-or-break descent and touched down within its landing zone. What is the news report about? A. B. C. D. Ans. B invention of Curiosity landing of Curiosity happiness at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory possibility of living on Mars Transcript 5. A V-chip has been developed. In addition to spelling out the age-based ratings, letters will be displayed to warn parents if a show contains violence or other objectionable content. A group of major networks and producers have agreed to go along with the system, but NBC will not. What does the V-chip do? A. B. C. D. It allows the cable company to monitor what TV programs you watch It turns your TV into a Ã¢â¬Å"virtual realityÃ¢â¬ computer. It allows parents to block out certain programs, so their children cannot watch them. It reduces the use of the remote control device Ans. C II Now you will listen to a long text a) Before you listen to the talk, read the questions for 1 minute. b) Your will listen to a talk about Tigers. Transcript: Tigers are being loved to death. Tourists desperate for a glimpse of a tiger are damaging habitat and harassing tigers. This by no means decides that tiger tourism or wildlife tourism is a bad thing. Wildlife tourism has a lot of advantages. Wildlife tourism helps people of the area who get employ in tourism. In this way, wildlife is valued, rather than poached, or encroached upon. Wildlife also inspires the people who see it. For many, a dramatic view of one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s great beasts Ã¢â¬â a tiger, a leopard, a whale Ã¢â¬â is a life-changing experience. Such a sighting makes people aware of the fragility of the planet and the folly of our short-term thinking. Above all, it prompts people to step back from our traditional species chauvinism. Wildlife tourism is similarly equivocal. When carried out with wisdom and responsibility, it is the best possible news for the creatures and the people of the area, and for the people doing the touring. Wildlife tourism can sometimes, with the best of intentions, be stupid, greedy and destructive. 14 | P a g e An adjustment of practice in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s wildlife tourism is a good thing. It is not tourists that are killing off tigers: it is, above all, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s ever-increasing human population, and its incontinent need for room to live in. 231 words) A. State whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) 6. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s fascination with the tigers is causing them harm. 7. Wildlife tourism should be banned. 8. Tigers tourists are destroying their living places. Ans: TRUE Ans: FALSE Ans: TRUE B. Fill in the blanks with a word or phrase. 9. Wildlife tourism helps in Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ . 10. Ans: employing people/ generating employment Wise and responsible behaviour is expected from tourists who go for wild life sightings Ans: human population. 15 | P a g e Set Ã¢â¬â I Assessment of Speaking Skills Sample Tasks Class Ã¢â¬â IX SPEAKING Instructions: ) The speaking test will be conducted for two students at a time. b) Students should not have pen, paper, mobile phone etc. c) The teacher will be an interlocutor and an assessor both. I. GENERAL INTRODUCTION Ã¢â¬â (1 min) (The Interlocutor makes the students feel comfortable) Interlocutor: Good morning, I am Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-. Hope you are looking forward to this brief interaction. Student A: Yes Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-/ I am Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: And what about your? (Looking at student B) Student B: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: What do you do in your spare time? To Student B) Student B: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: And how about you? (To student A) Student A: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Interlocutor: What makes you special? (To student A) Student A: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Interlocutor: What about you? (To Student B) Student B: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Interlocutor: What do admire in other people? (To student A) Student A: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Interlocutor: How about you? (To Student B) Student B: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: Thank you, this is the end of the first part of the test. II MINI PRESENTATION (1 min Preparation+ 2 each min each for the students= 5 min) 0 Marks Now, in this part of the test, candidates are given a topic with some points. They have a minute to prepare on the given topic and two minutes for the presentation. 16 | P a g e Students are given the following sets of in puts on cards or papers. Three options are given. Only one option has to be used at a time. Interlocutor: (To both A and B) Here is your topic. Both of you prepare your presentation on it. You are given one minute for preparation. Please use pencil and paper for writing points. After one minute I am going to ask you to present your views on the topic. I can ask anyone of you first. So be prepared and get ready. (Interlocutor hands over one card with cues to both A B) I. 1. 2. 3. Mobile phones in school Security Multiple uses Distraction If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? Do you think mobile phones should be allowed in school? ? Give two advantages of carrying a mobile phone to school. ? Do you think advantages outweigh the disadvantages? II. Changing Concepts and Methodologies of Teaching-learning in India 1. Examination Pattern 2. Variety of Subjects 3. Assessment Parameters If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? Do you like this present system of evaluation? ? Do you learn better when you are stress free? ? Do you think some students take this system very casually? III. An incident/person/book that changed my life. 1. What it is 2. What it is about 3. How it affected me If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? What was that specific quality that remained with you? ? What did you learn? ? How would you like to be now? III PAIR INTERACTION (3 mins) Interlocutor: In this part of the test the candidates A and B will discuss the given topic together . The interlocutor can refer to the assessment scale while the candidates are discussing together. Students respond to visual/ verbal stimulus. 1. Changing roles of women- a multitasker, works in office, answers phone calls, always under pressure of work. Working at home additional. 17 | P a g e 2. Growing Pollution, all kinds of pollution water, air and tourism pollution. 3. Discipline issues in schools are now becoming a serious concern. As responsible citizens discuss i. ii. iii. Kinds of indiscipline issues Reasons for growing indiscipline Advice / solutions to your fellow students. Closing (1 min) Thank you very much. That was the end of your test. The interlocutor retrieves the pencil and paper . 18 | P a g e Set Ã¢â¬â II Assessment of Speaking Skills Sample Tasks Class IX SPEAKING Instructions: a) The speaking test will be conducted for two students at a time. b) Students should not have pen, paper, mobile etc. c) The teacher will act as an interlocutor (who is involved in a conversation) as well as an assessor who will also give marks to the candidates. 10 Marks I GENERAL INTRODUCTION (1 min) The Interlocutor makes the students feel comfortable) Interlocutor: Hello! Good morning, I am Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-. May I know your name please? Student A: My name is Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-/ I am Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: And yours? (Looking at student B) Student B: Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: Where do you live? (To student B) Student B: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: How about you? (To student A) Student A: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Interlocutor: What do you do in your leisure? (To student A) Student A: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: And what do you do in your free time? To student B) Student B: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: What hobby would you like to cultivate? (To student A) Student A: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Interlocutor: How about you? (To student B) Student B: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â 19 | P a g e II MINI PRESENTATION: In this part of the test teacher will give 1 minute to prepare and 2 minutes each to both stude nts to present (5 min) Oral examiner can frame any inputs; the following two frames are suggested: (1) To student B, describe something that you own and you value it tremendously. You have 1 minute to prepare and 2 minutes to present. ? ? ? Where did you get it from? How long have you had it? What do you use it for? Why is it so important for you? If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? ? ? Did you buy it/ was it a gift? Would it be easy to replace it? Is it valuable in term of money? (2) To student A: You will be given one minute to prepare on your most memorable journey you will have 2 minute to describe your journey. (Each student is given 2 minutes to present) For student A ? ? ? ? Where did you travel to? What was the highlight of your visit? monument/temple/park/relatives) Which place would you like to visit next? Why are journeys relaxing? If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off ques tions ? Was it a trip organized by the school? ? Did you go with the family? ? Was it a place you had never seen before? ? What fascinated you? Ask student B to ask a question. To student A: (Repeat) (2) Qualities that I value in a friend For student B ? ? ? ? Qualities I like in a friend Why do I consider these qualities important How many of these qualities do I have What is that one quality that I would like to inculcate If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? Do you have a lot of friends? ? Why did you pick on them? ? Why do your friends care for you? Ask student A to ask a question 20 | P a g e (3) Changing role of women ? ? ? ? Varied jobs Working mothers Financial security Economicsocial independence If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? ? ? Do women in your family work outside the house? Do you appreciate women working? Why? Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages? III PAIR INTERACTION (3 mins): Instructions: a) Teacher to both students A and B Look at the visual carefully. Talk together for 2 minutes. Students are given 1 minute to think and prepare. And then their respond to visual/ verbal stimulus. (1) Child Marriage (2) Growing Obesity 21 | P a g e Verbal Stimulus (3) How do you imagine life in cities in the future? The interlocutor can give the following hints: ? Work ? Leisure/Entertainment ? Travel (4) What responsibilities do you think individuals have towards the environment? The interlocutor can give the following hints: ? Life style ? Shopping ? Finance IV Closing (1 min) Thank you very much. That was the end of your test. The interlocutor retrieves the pencil and paper. 22 | P a g e Set Ã¢â¬â I Assessment of Listening Skills Sample Tasks Class XI LISTENING Instructions: a) You will listen to the librarian of a new town library talking to a group of people who are visiting the library b) Before you listen to the talk, look at the plan of the Town Library given in your answer sheet. 1. As you listen, answer questions 1 Ã¢â¬â 5 in not more than one or two words. 20 Marks Transcript: Good morning, dear students. Now we are at the entrance to the town library. My name is Anita, and IÃ¢â¬â¢m the chief librarian here, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll usually find me at the desk just by the main entrance here. So IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to tell you about the way the library is organized, and what you will find where. All of you have a plan in front of you. Well, as you see my desk is just on the right as you enter, and opposite this the first room on your left has an excellent collection of reference books. Here is the place where people can read or study peacefully. Just beyond the librarianÃ¢â¬â¢s desk on the right is a room where we have an up- to- date periodicals section. This houses the newspapers and magazines. This room also has a photocopier in case you want to photocopy any of the articles. If you carry straight on youÃ¢â¬â¢ll come into a large room and this is the main library area. There is fiction in the shelves on the left, and non-fiction materials on your right, and on the shelves on the far wall there is an excellent collection of books relating to local history. We hope to add a section on local tourist attractions too, later in the year. As you walk through the far door in the library just past the fiction shelves, there is a seminar room. This room can be booked for meeting or talks. The next door leads to that is the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s library, which has a good collection of stories and picture books for youngster below eleven. Then thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a large room to the right of the library area Ã¢â¬â thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the multimedia collection, where you can browse through and borrow videos and DVDs. We also have CD-Roms you can borrow to use on your computer at home. It was originally the art collection but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s been moved to another building. And thatÃ¢â¬â¢s about it Ã¢â¬â oh, yes before I forget; thereÃ¢â¬â¢s also the Library Office, on the left of the librarianÃ¢â¬â¢s desk. Ok, now I hope you all are fairly well acquainted with the layout of the library. (360 words) 23 | P a g e Instructions: You will listen to two short extracts. As you listen, tick the correct answer. Transcript: 11. The tiger population has dipped from thousands to few hundreds. Look at the graph depicting the tiger world population which is very dismal. It reflects a dramatic fall in the tiger population. Identify the graph. Tick your answer. A. B. C. D. A Ans: D B C D 1 mark 12. Now look at the Pie chart of populations of English native speakers. The pie chart reveals that the USA by far had an overwhelming majority. This was followed by the United Kingdom. Australia seemed to have the least numbers of English native speakers. Choose the pie chart which reflects the situation of native speakers of English. B A C D A B C D Ans: D 24 | P a g e 4 Marks 1. Before listening to the narration by one of the campers please read the question 1 Ã¢â¬â 4 given in your answer sheet. Listen to the narration and with the words that you hear. Transcript: One day in 1924, five of us who were camping in the Cascade Mountains of Washington saw a group of huge apelike creatures coming out of the woods. We retreated in terror and locked urselves in our cabin. The creatures pelted rocks against the walls of the cabin. All of us inside were quaking in our shoes. 8. 9. 10. 11. The number of campersÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Place of campingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Intimidated byÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Method of attackÃ¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 4. pelted rocks Ans: 1. Five 2. Cascade Mountains 3. huge apelike creatures 2. Here is a dialogue between Neetu Kumar and the receptionist. Neetu Kumar is fixing a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s appointment. Listen to this dialogue and answer the questions given in your sheet. Transcript: Receptionist: Good morning, KVG Hospital. How can I help you? Neetu: I am Neetu Kumar. IÃ¢â¬â¢d like an appointment with your cardiologist, Dr Suresh Reddy, please. R: For when would you like the appointment? N: For tomorrow? R: Please hold the line. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll check if I can fit you in tomorrow. N: Sure, thanks. R: Thanks for holding. IÃ¢â¬â¢m afraid Dr Suresh is fully booked tomorrow. Would you like to see our other cardiologist Dr Dinesh Mehra instead? N: IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry, but weÃ¢â¬â¢d prefer to see Dr Reddy. R: ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s all right. In that case, would you like an appointment with him for the day after? N: ThatÃ¢â¬â¢d be fine. R: Would 12 noon suit you, Ms Kumar? N: Sure. R: Could I have the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s name and age? N: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Mrs Prema Kumar. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s 65. R: Is this her first visit to KVG? 25 | P a g e N: Yes. R: Are you consulting Dr Reddy on your physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s advice? N: No, a friend of mine suggested we see him. R: OK, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve put you down for 12 noon, Friday, 15 September. Please be here by 11. 30. N: Thanks! R: YouÃ¢â¬â¢re welcome. Can I have your phone number, please? N: 9940109932 R: Thank you, Ms Kumar, have a nice day! Task Fill in the information in the appointment book. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Doctor ________________________ Day and date __________________________ Time ________________________________ Name of atient _________________________ Age _______________________ Referral Yes/No If Yes, doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s name ____________________________ Contact person __________________________ Contact phone number ___________________________ 26 | P a g e Set Ã¢â¬â I Assessment of Speaking Skill Sample Task Class Ã¢â¬â XI I GENERAL INTRODUCTION (1 min) 10 Mar ks (The Interlocutor makes the students feel comfortable) Interlocutor: Good morning, I am Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-. Student A: My name is Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-/ I am Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: And yours? (looking at student B) Student B:Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: How would you describe yourself? to student B) Student B: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: What about you? (to student A) Student A: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: What is that one thing that you would like to change in yourself? (to student A) Student A:Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-(The interlocutor/assessor gives instructions for the mini presentation. ) II MINI PRESENTATION In the mini presentation, students are expected to speak for two minutes on a given topic. Th e interlocutor gives them pencil and paper to write points. They are not supposed to write complete answers. (1 min Preparation+ 2 each min for students= 5 min) The input cards are given to the students. Any one out of the four can be given to the pair. The Interlocutor may ask any student A or B begin first. After one student has finished his or her presentation, the student should be asked to ask a question on the mini presentation. The same process should be repeated with the other student also. a. What skill would you like to learn most in the future? Why? (1) My choice of a career ? ? ? Why is it important? How do you hope to achieve your goal? How do you think would you be a productive member of the society? If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions 27 | P a g e ? How did you decide on your choice? Do you have other options? (2) What would you preferÃ¢â¬âlife in Rural or Urban area? ? ? ? Choice Three reasons Difference If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? Have you been exposed to both the life styles? ? How is it different? (3) Advantages of co education ? ? ? Society co nsists of men and women Rapport is built Helps in adult life If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? ? What do you prefer? Why? Does it add to your comfort? (4) A book that I enjoyed reading ? ? Why did you pick up the book? How long did you take to read it? Genre of the book If the student is not able to speak at length the teacher could ask rounding off questions ? What kind of books do you enjoy? ? Have you heard or of seen a book that has been filmed? III PAIR INTERACTION (3 mins) Students respond to visual/ verbal stimulus. Students AB look at the picture and talk together to describe it. (1) Rag Pickers 28 | P a g e Teacher could ask prompt question: 1. 2. What are the environmental hazards if the waste is not managed in time and properly? What kind of a holiday would you prefer? Students look at the pictures and choose one, then talk together? Teacher could ask a prompt question. 3. ? ? ? Studying abroad High cut offs Easy money from parents Brand value and status symbol 4. Changing Values ? things that give status to people in your country ? changes since your parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ time ? Reasons for changes IV Closing (1 min) 29 | P a g e Assessment of Listening Skills Class XI Set Ã¢â¬â II 20 Marks Instructions: a) Before listening to the passage on Tsunami read the questions. (1 min) b) Listen to the passage on Tsunami that caused devastation in Japan. While you listening complete the blanks. Transcript: The tsunami that hit Japan on March 11, 2011 has been labelled the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s worst tragedy since World War II. The 8. 9-magnitude earthquake that hit north-eastern Japan and the 23-feet tsunami it triggered has left a trail of devastation in its wake. After the Ferocious Friday some numbers continue to haunt: tens of thousand dead; even more missing; 4,50,000 rendered homeless. The Japanese are familiar with natural disasters and are trained in handling a calamity and ways of evacuation. Statistics speak of a tremor occurring somewhere in the country about every five minutes with annually there being up to 2,000 quakes. But no amount of preparation proved enough for the recent calamity of colossal proportion. NatureÃ¢â¬â¢s fury swept aside every safeguard in place. Many perished in split seconds and those who escaped the wrath pleaded for aid in every possible way. The catastrophe has lead to an outpouring of grief from around the world. The quake-tsunami double blow wrecked parts of a beautiful country and scarred lives. It couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t, however, crack the inherent willpower or destroy the strength of character of its beautiful people; the people who have stayed admirably calm under chaos and begun regrouping forces to rebuild what they have lost. Most eyewitness accounts from the affected zones spoke about residents experiencing power outages, shortage of drinking water and food but there being no panic, arson or emotional breakdown, as reported from other countries where similar disasters have struck. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s temperament reflecting a society that cares for its neighbour. It was not the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s technical competence which endeared, it was its people. They displayed dignity, discipline and a genuine desire to assist. (274 words) While you listen to the passage, tick the correct option 1. The tsunami of 2011 has been labelled the Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. . the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s worst tragedy since World War II. b. the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s worst natural calamity c. the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s worst earthquake d. the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s worst economic disaster Ans: b. the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s worst natural calamity 30 | P a g e 2. The Japanese are familiar with natural disasters becauseÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. a. there is a tremor in the country about every five minutes b. they have nerves of steel and presence of mind c. they are technologically advanced and can cope with disasters d. they are used to being hit by a tsunami Ans: a. there is a tremor in the country about every five minutes B. Fill in the blanks 3. The quake-tsunami wrecked the beautiful country and scarred lives but it couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t destroy Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 4. The Japanese experienced shortage of drinking water and food but they did not resort toÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 5. What endears the Japanese to the world is their Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Ans: 3. the strength of character/ the will power 4. unlawful means/ panic, arson or emotional breakdown 5. dignity, and discipline II. 1. Listen to James talk about his routine, and fill in the blanks given in your answer sheet: Transcript I guess I should tell you about what I do everyday. First, everyone has to get up at 5:30 A. M. The silly old rooster amed Harry loves to wake us up. Next, we have to make our beds and tidy up the cabin before our camp counsellor, Jeff, comes to inspect the place. Then, we have breakfast around 6:30 A. M. After that, we have some free time, so IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been going down to the nearby stream to fish for a couple of hours. But yesterday, the only thin g I caught was an old shoe and a tree branch. Great catch, huh? Then when I was trying to swat a mosquito buzzing around my head, I slipped and fell in the stream and lost my fishing pole. That ended my fishing career. 6. 7. 8. 9. James is woken up byÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. The first thing that James does isÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ He eats breakfast at about Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ James talks of two mishaps when he wentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 2. Listen to the town planner describes the road. Which one is he talking about. Transcript Many types of road exist around the world. We are looking for well laid out thoroughfare which will be aesthetically laid out with a canopy of trees. 31 | P a g e A B C D Ans. C 3. Match the graphs to the correct definitions Transcript 10. 11. 12. 13. Ans: 1. 2. 3. 4. Sales fell steadily through over the year. Sales rose steadily over the year Sales increased sharply from June. Sales bottomed out in May C A B D A B C D 32 | P a g e 4. Match the images with the correct descriptions B C D Transcript 14. 15. 16. 17. Ans: a. b. c. d. 5. Youngman with dark glasses and a happy face Good-looking young man with black eyes Young man with glasses and a beard Old man with curly hair and glasses D A B C Listen to the telephonic conversation and fill in the blanks Transcript F: Hello Mrunal, Mira here. M: Hi Mira, how are you doing? F: IÃ¢â¬â¢m good but busy as always. Actually, IÃ¢â¬â¢m completing a project with Wipro. In fact I wanted to talk to you as IÃ¢â¬â¢m looking for an assistant Ã¢â¬â any ideas? M: Is it the database project? F: No, itÃ¢â¬â¢s about developing our brand. M: I see. Do you know what kind of person you are trying to find? F: The person needs excellent qualifications Ã¢â¬â itÃ¢â¬â¢s more the creative side of things. Moreover we need the person to be involved in. M: You could give Neera a call. SheÃ¢â¬â¢ll help you as sheÃ¢â¬â¢s doing all kinds of consultancy work. Currently sheÃ¢â¬â¢s an advisor to a couple of large companies I believe. I can email you her details if you like. F: Great, thanks Ans a. b. c. d. 33 | P a g e a project an assistant creative / involved neera 18. Mrunal was busy completing Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 19. Mrunal wanted to Mira to help him find Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 20. Mrunal wanted the person who wasÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. and Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Closing 34 | P a g e Assessment of Speaking Skill Set Ã¢â¬â II Class Ã¢â¬â XI 10 Marks I GENERAL INTRODUCTION Ã¢â¬â (1 min) (The Interlocutor makes the students feel comfortable) Interlocutor: Good morning, I am Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-. Student A: My name is Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-/ I am Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: And yours? (looking at student B) Student B: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: What do you do in your leisure time (To student B) Student B: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Interlocutor: What other hobby would you like to develop? To student A) Student A: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢ â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Interlocutor: what would you like to develop? (To student B) Student B: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âInterlocutor: who is your favourite actor? (To student A) Student A: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Interlocutor: And yours? (To student B) Student B: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â II MINI PRESENTATION (1 min Preparation + 2 each min for both the students= 5 min) 1. Your school is planning to organize an adventure camp during summer vacations. The Secretary of the School Adventure Club has offered the following three choices. As a member of the club which place would you prefer? Give reasons for your choice. (Interlocutor gives different input card to both students. Four samples are given) ? ? ? Seven day swimming camp at lake Bhimtal Four day trekking camp at Pehalgam, Srinagar Five day river rafting camp at Rishikesh 35 | P a g e 2. Talk about a book you have read recently ? ? ? Why did you decided to read that book? How long did it take to finish the book? What genre of book it was? 3. Talk about your favourite news channel. ? ? ? 4. ? ? ? ? III How often you use this news source Why do you use this channel What other sources you use E-learning. Autonomous learning Adds variety Gives choices Clarifies concepts PAIR INTERACTION (3 mins) Students respond to visual/ verbal stimulus. Students look at the pictures and talk together for three minutes 1. Elderly Ã¢â¬âsad and lonely, neglected by their family members. Dependent on others for their physical needs. Money not adequate to meet the expenses of medicines. 36 | P a g e 2. E-revolution in India. Awareness in villages about computers. Government has brought out e-tablets which are cost-effective Energy Saving devices in new computers. Closing 37 | P a g e How to cite Speech Writing, Papers
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: 1. Summarise the key historical and current developments in tourism. Identify the different types of tourism (Mass and Special Interest tourism) and explain their characteristics giving examples where appropriate. (LO1) (600 words) 2. There are reasons why tourists visit a particular destination. Discuss the extent literature related to the demand for tourism, particularly looking at tourist behaviour and motivations. Answer: Introduction The report would essentially focus on understanding the historical and current developments that have been generated in the travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom. It would also focus on analysing the factors that contribute in creating the demand and also in motivating tourists to venture into tourism adventures both on the domestic and international fronts. The report would also aim in understanding the elements that are needed to be effectively incorporated for development of resorts. Finally, the report would reflect on the features of public, private and voluntary firms operating in the travel and tourism sector of United Kingdom with effective examples. Historical and Current Developments in Tourism Current developments in the tourism sector are highlighted in terms of growth of arrival of international tourists where during 2014 the number of tourist arrivals grew by around 4.3 percent compared to the previous period totalling to an amount of 1.133 billion. Further, highlights reflect that activities associated with international tourism generated increased revenues of around $1.5 trillion in terms of generation of export revenues. A forecast rendered by the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) reflects that growth in the number of arrivals of international tourists to different regions is increased by around 3 to 4 percent during the 2015 period(UNWTO, 2015). Further, the current trends associated with the tourism sector reflects on the use of internet based technological systems like Smartphones and other gadgets by consumers for reservation activities in hotels and in other transportation mediums like airlines and railways. An estimate carried out during 2014 reflects that around 25 percent of the hotel bookings made by United States based tourists were carried out through the use of mobile devices. Moreover, the development of social networking mediums like Facebook and Twitter are also observed to be increasingly employed by the tourism and travel companies for generation of increased awareness about tourism products and services to a larger number of tourists around the world(Chopra, 2015). Different Types of Tourism The different types of tourism are broadly categorised under two heads like mass and special interest tourisms. Mass tourism denotes to tourism activities where the tourism products and services are generated to be consumed by people in large numbers or masses. Thus mass tourism involves increased or mass production of tourism products and services. Moreover mass tourism also features the growth of demand and consumption of consumer goods and accessories associated with the tourism venture. It is observed that people moving in tourist places featuring sea focus on the procurement of surf boards while skiing accessories are increasingly demanded by people moving over to snow capped hills and mountains. Other examples of mass tourism reflects on theme parks like the Disney theme park that attracts considerable number of tourists and also tourism packages designed by touring companies like Thomas and Cook inviting increased number of tourists. Similarly, the designing of tourism packages featuring facilities like touring, dining and other entertainment activities also contribute in attracting con siderable number of people to tourism sites featuring architectures and beaches(Baldacchino, 2016). Special Interest Tourism or SIT is featured by the existence of tourists that share common interests in visiting specific places and tourist destinations. The common liking reflected by the tourists contributes in attributing their choices for specific tourism destinations. Activities concerning SIT are essentially designed based on the travel interests and motivation of the tourist groups rather than being based on income, age and other social and demographic categories. Nature tourism can be effectively identified as a potential example of SIT. The SIT can be effectively categorised as health tourism, passive tourism activities associated with sports, active tourism activities like adventure based tourism, creative tourism associated with cultural performances like dance, music and art, heritage and also luxury or relaxing tourism(Richins Hull, 2016). Demand for Tourism The demand for different tourist sites and venues are increasingly constituted by a host of different functions like the age, income, educational and marital status of the people interested or focusing to tour to specific tourism destinations. Further, the prices of the different tour packages developed by the tour and travel companies also affect and determine the travelling and touring demand of the people to specific tourism destinations. The demand for honeymoon sites and packages both along domestic and international tourism are potentially influenced by the marital status and situation of the masses. Similarly, educational tours pertaining to travelling to historical and heritage sites are influenced by nature of the educational status of the people. Changes in the exchange rates between two economies also tend to influence the tourism demand of the people. The exchange rates associated with tourism destinations are also influenced by the inflation rates concerning the tourism destinations or economies. Growth in the level of inflation along with unfavourable exchange rates dampens the interests of the tourists. Existence of substitute tourist destinations and tourism packages also influence the demand of tourists moving over to specific regions(Song Witt, 2012). Push/Pull Factors Different types of push and pull factors are observed to influence the interests of tourists visiting specific tourist destinations. Different types of push factors like escaping from the routine or mundane work and social environments, exploration of different regions and their own adventurous behaviours, desire to earn relaxation and luxurious lifestyle for specific periods, interest for enhancing social and kinship interactions and relations are observed to influence the mindset of the people for touring over to specific regions. The other pull factors like novelty of tourist regions and also the educational qualifications of the tourists are also observed to potentially influence the tourist mindset. Push and pull factors in a combined form together contribute in taking effective decisions regarding the restoration of tourism and ecological environments. The push factors are thus observed to be the different types of psychological factors that potentially motivate and influence t he consumers for generating visits to different tourist regions. Pull factors on the other hand reflect on the essential features and determinants of specific tourism destinations that potentially attract tourists to such regions. Thus, students pursuing research in architectural, archaeological and historical studies are thus observed to be pulled to tourism destinations of heritage and historical interests(Tribe, 2009). Tourist Motivation and Typologies Tourist typologies based on motivational aspects of tourist contribute in categorising tourists. The five different tourist categories or typologies are identified as follows. Budget travellers are identified to be tourists that are economically oriented in nature. Adventure travellers are observed to be tourists that focus on touring over to adventurous regions consisting of hills, forests and beaches encouraging activities like trekking and surfing. The adventure travellers however are observed to reflect reduced interests for enjoying leisure tourism involving the use of spas and other relaxing centres(CHEN et al., 2014). Homebodies are categorised as tourists that desire for enjoying relaxing travel. These tourist categories do not desire in getting travel related information and also are not adventurous in nature. Vacationers are categorised as tourists that focus on planning of tourism activities and focus on booking of holidays depending on their vacation periods. Finally, the moderates are classified as tourists that have an increased interest for travelling over to different regions but do not have inclinations for participating in activities concerning sports tourism and also in weekend trips to short destinations(Lubbe, 2003). Factors Influencing Tourist Motivation A set of factors underlined below tend to influence the decision making activities of the tourists visiting both domestic and international regions. Age of the Tourists Age constitutes to be important determinant that governs the decision making activities of the people concerning touring. Survey conducted on the tourist population in United Kingdom reflects that people aged between 16 to 24 years and also those beyond 65 years are more inclined in availing holiday packages designed by tour operators. People belonging to the above age categories however fail to meet their tourism needs on a frequent basis owing to income constraints. The UK population relating to the age group 35 to 54 reflect potential interests in overseas or international tourism while the retired population focus more on enjoying the benefits of domestic tourism. The younger population in the region is largely advertised for promotion of both adventurous and leisure tourism on account of their energy and also income power(Song Witt, 2012). Family Influences In terms of family influences, the women population in the UK households are observed to act as information seekers and analysers regarding selection of tourism venues. However, the decision regarding length of stay, price packages, travelling decisions and also accommodation facilities are undertaken in a joint fashion in heterosexual households. The existence of children in the households also requires the parents to make tourism plans depending on school or college holidays where the duration of the holidays are also planned based on the availability of the children(Page, 2014). Gender Gender groupings among men, women and also the existence of transgender population in societies potentially influence the touring decisions of the different communities. The men are observed to be potentially interested in adventure tourism involving trekking, mountain climbing, paragliding, skiing and other types of sporting events. Further, the male population is also interested in availing sex tourism. The women tourists focus on touring over to spiritual and religious places while also on availing the benefits of leisure tourism(Page Connell, 2006). Agents and Elements Needed for Development of Tourist Attractions The elements that are needed to be incorporated for designing and development of effective tourism attractions and resorts are identified in terms of 6As of tourism. The first A signifies the incorporation of needed attractions like designing resorts involving scenic attractions like hills, forests and beaches or in the form of development of artificial attractions like that of designing theme and amusement parks for entertaining guests and visitors through generation of cultural nights and festivals. The second A denotes the incorporation of transportation infrastructures for generation of accessibility to the resorts. The tour or resort company thus not only requires in making the tourists avail adequate transportation facilities but also in generation of effective routes that would help in servicing the tourists by fetching them from different busy terminals like airports and railway stations(Hampton, 2013). The third A increasingly focus on the generation of effective amenities b ased on providing the right quality and standard of accommodation facilities along with provision of effective and quality food and leisure facilities for entertaining the people. Further, the fourth A reflect on the different types of tour product and service packages that are designed by other intermediary firms linked with the tourism company for generation of tour services in a customised fashion. The fifth A relate to the different activities that are designed in the tourist resorts for helping in the attraction of potential tourists. The activities in the tourist resorts can be made increasingly attractive based on the incorporation of support from different event management firms. The final A relates to the development of network of the tourist resort with other ancillary firms pertaining to different sectors like banks, hospitals, insurance and postal services. The development of networks of the tourist resort with other ancillary services provided by government, semi-govern ment and private partners would help the tourists enjoy their tours in a holistic fashion(Buhalis Amaranggana, 2014). Key Organisations in UK Travel and Tourism Industry The investigation of the travel and tourism sector based in United Kingdom reveals that the sector is increasingly constituted by firms operating in the private, public and voluntary sector. Private Sector Firms Investigations carried out in the UK Tourism and Travel Industry reflect that majority of the firms operating in the stated sector in the region belong to the private category. The private sector tour and travelling firms increasingly focus on incurring increased revenues and profits while also in generating increased returns to the shareholders. Travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom contribute in generating increased employment in the region such that it contributes in generating 10 percent of the total employment in the economy. Different types of private tour and travel companies operating in United Kingdom are like Thomas Cook, Holiday Inn, British Airways, London Eye, Alton Towers and Virgin Trains. Public Sector Firms The public sector firms operating in the travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom are observed to be effectively governed by the local, regional and national governments. The public sector tourism and travel organisations increasingly focus on educating, informing and providing quality touring and travelling services to tourists at reduced cost. The government authority DCMS or the Department of Culture, Media and Sport potentially operates in managing and governing the operations of the government travel and tour firms operating in the region. Some effective examples of travel and tour firms operating along the tourism supply chain in United Kingdom are like the museums, tourism and travel information centres, national gallery and also the different regional tourism development organisations(Smith Stewart, 2014). Voluntary Sector Firms The voluntary sector firms operating in the travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom are essentially constituted by charity and not-for-profit organisations and also other types of trusts. The funding of the voluntary sector firms are made based on the use of entrance fees, donations generated by the internal members and those collected from the external society and also a host of fundraising events generated in the region. The voluntary sector firms mainly focus on promoting and protecting the tourism and heritage resources and sites in the region. The operation of the voluntary sector firms operating in the travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom are carried out by staffs, managers and other volunteers. Examples of voluntary firms in the travel and tourism sector in United Kingdom are the national trust of United Kingdom, Friends of Williamsons, The Sealed Knot and also Tourism Concern(Visit Britain, n.d.). Conclusions The analysis carried out in the report effectively reflects on the current developments brought about in the global tourism and travel sector. It also analyses the characteristics of two main types or categories of tourism like mass and specific interest tourism in an empirical fashion and also through the generation of effective examples for generation of needed clarity. Further, the report also reflects on the different factors or reasons that attract potential tourists to the regions. The analysis is conducted to understand the demand factors and also other factors that increasingly motivate the tourists in venturing to different regions. The report also focuses on the different elements that need to be effectively incorporated for designing of tourist attractions and resorts. Finally, the paper also reflects on private, public and voluntary firms operating in the travel and tourism sector of United Kingdom with relevant examples. References Baldacchino, G., 2016. Archipelago Tourism: Policies and Practices. New York : Routledge. Buhalis, D. Amaranggana, A., 2014. Smart Tourism Destinations. Information and Communication Technologies, pp.553-64. CHEN, G., BAO, J. HUANG, S.(., 2014. Segmenting Chinese Backpackers by Travel Motivations. International Journal of Tourism Research, 16, pp.355-67. Chopra, B., 2015. Five global trends for travel tourism industry in 2015. [Online] Available at: https://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2015-01-14/news/58066349_1_travel-space-hoteltonight-technology [Accessed 29 July 2016]. Hampton, M.P., 2013. Backpacker Tourism and Economic Development: Perspectives from the Less Developed World. New York : Routledge. Lubbe, B.A., 2003. Tourism Management in Southern Africa. South Africa: Pearson South Africa. Page, S.J., 2014. Tourism Management. New York : Routledge. Page, S. Connell, J., 2006. Tourism: A Modern Synthesis. United Kingdom : Cengage Learning EMEA. Private Tours UK, 2016. Private Tours Sightseeing from and in LONDON. [Online] Available at: https://www.privatetoursuk.com/ [Accessed 29 July 2016]. Richins, H. Hull, J., 2016. Mountain Tourism: Experiences, Communities, Environments and Sustainable Futures. United Kingdom: CABI. Smith, J.D. Stewart, S., 2014. Cambridge International AS and A Level Travel and Tourism. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Song, .H. Witt, S.F., 2012. Tourism Demand Modelling and Forecasting. New York : Routledge. Tribe, J., 2009. Philosophical Issues in Tourism. United States : Channel View Publications. UNWTO, 2015. Why tourism? [Online] Available at: https://www2.unwto.org/content/why-tourism [Accessed 29 July 2016]. Visit Britain, n.d. Structure of tourism in Britain. [Online] Available at: https://www.visitbritain.org/structure-tourism-britain [Accessed 29 July 2016].
Sunday, March 22, 2020
Lab Report Discussion Paper We have made four set-ups in two different specimens. Onion and Boat of Moses skin with water, 2%, 5% and 10% salt (NCAA) Solution. Based on our experiment, the result of the set up explains that the presence of the salt solution results in outward diffusion of water and the collapse of the protoplasm. In table 1, we have observed under the microscope that the onionskin mounted with water has no results of polymerase cell (0%). This time, we have repeated the procedure with 2% salt solution and it is observed that there are 6 (3. 9%) localized cells. In the 5% salt solution, there are 119 (87. %) polymerase cells. And in the 10% salt solution, there are number of polymerase cells present. In table 2,same procedure was done but with different specimen. We have observed that the boat of Moses mounted with water also has no results of polymerase cell (0%). In the 2% salt solution, there are about 20 (43. 4%) polymerase cells. 46 (88. 5%). Polymerase cells were also observed in the set-u p with 5% salt solution and in the solution, all of the 59 cells are polymerase (100%). Thus, increase in percentage of the salt in a solution also increases the number of the polymerase cells. Water passes out of the cell towards a region of lesser water concentration which results to the shrinkage of the protoplasm (Figure 1). This shrinkage away from the cell wall due to excessive loss of water is called polynomials. Figure 1. Polynomials in Ilium Cheap : The first image in the left shows that the cells mounted with water shows no signs of polynomials, in the middle mounted with 2% NCAA solution shows minimal shrinkage of cells, in the right most image mounted with 5% NCAA solution almost all of the cells were polymerase. After observing the onion and boat of Moses skin in the different solution, we have replaced the solution with distilled water. Based on our observation, when the solution is replaced, the protoplasm regained to its original form simply because of the vacuole that absorbs and stores the water. This then results to the inward diffusion of water. If after a short time, however, the polymerase cells are transferred from the salt solution to pure water, the direction of the et water movement is reversed, for there is now relatively more water outside the cells than there is inside. We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report Discussion specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report Discussion specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report Discussion specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Water thus passes out inward, the protoplasm increases in volume as the outdoor pressure of the cell sap increases, and the tissue regains its turgidity. (H. Fuller and Z. Caruthers) Reference: The plant world fourth edition Harry Fuller and Zane Caruthers 1963 United states of America: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Organizations as Organisms Free Online Research Papers Organizations are not just a working machine that functions for its own benefit without regard to the environment, but should be viewed as living systems that are comprised of smaller units that work inter-dependently to create a whole organism, or in other words, an organization. The military and the orchestra are two examples of distinct entities that can be viewed as an Ã¢â¬Å"open systemÃ¢â¬ that is distinctive in that in order to survive, it must depend on its environment and interact with its own sub systems or units in order to survive. Sub units can be seen as aspects of an organization that contribute to its working parts. When looking to the environment for survival, resources that are deemed necessary, such as money, people, or the community, we see this as an open system since an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions with its sub units will depend on its survival. This paper intends to provide that organizations, such as the military and the orchestra are different organi zation, but relate in that they can relate as a living system and both depend on its environment for survival while at the same time prove its distinct difference prove productive on how they obtain their needed resources. The military is considered a basic-economic system, an Ã¢â¬Å"Eco systemÃ¢â¬ comprised of different basic units with its own labor source that works towards the overall goal of creating a military Ã¢â¬Å"aggregate soldierÃ¢â¬ that can exceed the addition of all subunits to create a bigger entity that impacts the world. The military is a unique organism but at the same time, its size and force can work against it. The military unit is a continuous force of input and output that drives on the economic resources it needs to produce its domestic product, a ready military force. This constant need can sometimes create a burden because our society allows a voluntary source; by creating a constitutional duty that is seen vital, the military mandates a period of time for people to serve to help produce that economic resource. The military relies on the external economic environment to provide resources to create its domestic product and depending upon the stability of the environm ent, the militaryÃ¢â¬â¢s performance may be hindered due to reduce combat capability as well as the memberÃ¢â¬â¢s personal consumer society. In order for the military to be a true productive force, the ingrained economic laws in which society follow that govern life and activity are used by each unit to determine the effectiveness each subunit can provide. Labor efficiency is done by upgrading logistical and technical equipment capability, ensuring every member is qualified, raising economic awareness to reduce waste, fostering cohesion and teamwork, as well as investigating other national and foreign units to develop a cohesive, economically sound team (Federov, 2001). Like the military, the orchestra can also be system a similar organism with subunits that comprise the unit as a whole. It has complex interdependent subsystems that cause the orchestra to rely on its economic environment for its survival. An orchestra runs like an organization in terms distinct job function boundaries, the orchestra itself, staff, board members, and volunteers. These systems may be broken down further by departments within each job function. The orchestra relies heavily on the external environment for income through ticket sales and contributions to support the orchestraÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"personnel intensiveÃ¢â¬ asset needs. To help the support the orchestra, marketing advertises concerts to generate income as well through record sales. To promote the environmentÃ¢â¬â¢s love for music, members are reaching out to their community with music education in hopes that the community will provide inputs. Another issue is not in the form of economic need, but a pers onÃ¢â¬â¢s quality of life that music brings. It is an intangible asset to consider in terms of the impact on the community, the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and the value added. Measuring an intangible asset is hard, but looking at the community as a whole and the stability of an orchestraÃ¢â¬â¢s economic input-process-output stability can give a better indication Roelofs, 2005). The military and an orchestra are similar in terms of a living system in that they both have relationships with its smaller units and is an integrated whole. The military is a single whole process where each military member creates a unit that in turn produces a systemic effect. These individual units build and each section produces an effect that when in combination, creates a military force that can create a large labor force in a limited space. Relationships are formed through cohesiveness, a common sense of duty, and an understanding of economic expectation of labor outputs. The orchestra also consists of systems and subsystems that work to create the orchestra as a whole. Subsystems consist of board members that work to obtain contributions for the orchestra, staff, volunteers, and the musicians themselves. Both the military and the orchestra are seen as a whole unit as the military impacts the entire globe. The military combat warring nations to protect communities and ser ve as ambassadors to other nations to build friendships and strengthen units to ensure longevity. The orchestra work to provide music to communities to build a sense of pride and unity and establish themselves with people. Every system has its autonomy and function; managers work through systematic processes within its own logic and how the organization reacts to situations. By treating organizations as a living system, managers cooperate and try to build partnership for sustainability (Capra, 1996). Looking at an orchestra and the military in terms of a systems approach, there are some important differences in the way it functions for the environment. Both parties function in that they each are developed through sub units with its own interdepartmental system and how they work to support the overall whole unit, but one can look at the orchestra as its own subunit of the organization whereas the military is still just considered the whole of an organization. With an orchestra, one can be found in almost every community and each one works to support itself to provide music to the community and the various programs it provides. Each organization may run a little differently, budgets and contributions will vary and each orchestraÃ¢â¬â¢s depth will vary; its output will be based on what their own individual organization wants to deliver. With the military, the sub units as a whole works towards a common goal set by the organization. Its living systems are predetermined on how they will exist and to what function. The goal is a two-fold process, how do we become the best technologically and maintain the skill set needed through the economic boundaries set forth and how do we create a sustaining mindset within thousands of individuals to understand we are a living system as one? Each organization is common in that they require an open system of resources for sustenance but each is different in their output. All things can be considered living systems, take TUIU for example. TUIU can be looked at as a whole unit because it is a university organization with different subunits that make up the sum of the whole part. Like a human body, students are like cells that create different organs and tissue. The tissue can be seen as the classes offered to the cells, like food to exist within the subunit. The organs are each department of the university that takes in all the cells and refers it to various parts for answers and needed functions. The whole university functions as the brain, which needs all parts to help function. TUIU becomes a social system when students come together for a common purpose and have mutual interaction and focuses on the basic principles of what they are trying to accomplish. If students fail to interact, processes begin to dissect. As we discussed living systems in comparison to the orchestra and the military, how could we put this in terms for a new organizational member? An organization is considered a living system when you look at the autonomy each department has is accomplishing the processes to reach goals. Managers take in the logic and emotions of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and implement ways to influence its employees to create ways to make processes better, faster, and cheaper as a way to empower them and be committed to the organization by cultivating what is important to them (Capra,1996). Even though many see an organization as a living system, how can we relate it to a machine? Organizations are a relationship that persists over time, as does a well-running machine. Members that work machines (inter-departments) must anticipate changes that a machine may need as the environment changes since information is the food that drives it. The levers (people) take signals from the environment and bring the data forward to modify the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. For example, your organization is marketing a new shoe. You decide to do a marketing analysis through random cities that are selling the shoe (feedback loop) and your levers (people in the organization) are providing the feedback signals to the machine (inter-departments) to determine the changes needed to modify in relation to the change in environment to market new changes to the shoe (Flower, 1995). The military and the orchestra are but two examples on how anyone can break down an organization in a living system, a whole unit with sub units that relate and interconnect in order to support being a whole unit. The wholeness of a unit comes from its social system, the community or ecosystems. The military is unique in that it survives not only on the technology and economic resources it is given, but the global need for protection and people who feels itÃ¢â¬â¢s their constitutional duty to serve those people. The orchestra is also unique in that its survival completely rest on their community. Music is a way to bring communities together but its resources must come from those same people to survive; inter-departments work together in order to support the orchestra as a whole. Another concept viewed is how an organization or an organism can function as a machine. The environment acts as the feedback loop and uses the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s levers to provide signal for change. The environment is the driver of change and organisms, us, must learn from our past in order to adapt to the changing environment and function as a whole unit. References Capra, F. (N.D.) Living Systems. The Light Party. Retrieved May 18, 2009, from lightparty.com/Visionary/LivingSystems.html Fedorov, G.S. (2001) The Military Unit as Part of the Armed Forces Economic System . Military Thought . July. Retrieved May 18, 2009, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JAP/is_4_10/ai_78839805/ Flower, J. (1995) The Structure Of Organized Change: A conversation with Kevin Kelly. The Healthcare Forum Journal, vol. 38, no. 1, January/February 1995. Retrieved May 18, 2009, from well.com/user/bbear/kellyart.html Roelofs, L. (N.D.) Organizational Change: Open System Concepts. Symphony Orchestra Institute. Retrieved May 18, 2009, from soi.org/reading/change/concepts.shtml Research Papers on Organizations as OrganismsOpen Architechture a white paperBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfGenetic EngineeringAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeDefinition of Export QuotasIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalThe Project Managment Office SystemInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 2